Political Systems

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Political Systems
2013-01-27 21:32:13
Cultural Anthropology

Midterm II Review
Show Answers:

  1. Define sociopolitical organization.
    The regulation and management of interrelations among groups.
  2. Bands
  3. What is a band?
    A small, kin-based group related by blood or marriage.
  4. Today, where are they found? (2 answers)
    Among modern hunters & gatherers/foragers and within nation-states
  5. Political Characteristics of Band Societies
  6. True/False: Band societies are egalitarian. If false, why?
  7. What two things are band societies based on?
    Kinship and reciprocity
  8. True/False: All members had the same access to resources. If false, why?
  9. True/False: There is formal law. If false, why?
    False. The system of rules is enforced by informal institutions.
  10. Tribes
  11. What kind of societies are tribal? (2 kinds)
    Pastoralist or horticulturalist societies.
  12. Although most tribes are egalitarian, what do some of them have?
    Gender stratification.
  13. Tribes have _____ access to resources and ____ authority of tribal leaders.
    open; limited
  14. Yanomami (Brazil, Venezuela)
    Consists of 20,000 people living in 200-250 scattered villages of 40-250 people.
  15. True/False: The male village head has limited authority. If false, why?
  16. How does the male village head lead?
    He leads by example or persuasion, not by power over other members. He must be generous.
  17. Papua new Guinea (Indonesia)
  18. What does the "Big Man" do?
    He leads several villages.
  19. The "Big Man" is usually _______ than othersĀ  he must be _______ with people he leads, and he usually _______ regional events such as feast and markets.
    wealthier; generous; regulates
  20. What sometimes happened to greedy "Big Men"?
    They were sometimes murdered by followers.
  21. Pantribal Sodalities
  22. What are pantribal sodalities?
    Non-kin groups/associations extending across several villages.
  23. Groups of one gender born during a certain time frame are known as ____ ______.
    age sets
  24. True/False: In pantribal sodalities, age sets are usually female. If false, why?
    False. They are usually male.
  25. True/False: Age sets usually fought in warfare together, and go through adult initiation rites together. If false, why?
  26. Chiefdoms
  27. When did chiefdoms first develop?
    Around 10,000-7,000 years ago.
  28. Carneiro defines a chiefdom as an "_________ political unit compromising a number of villages under the _______ control of a paramount _______"
    autonomous; permanent; chief
  29. Political Characteristics of Chiefdoms
  30. What are rank, power, and prestige based on? (2 things)
    • Kinship
    • Hereditary descent
  31. Chiefs were full time _____ specialists, and had control over regular ________ and ______ of resources.
    production; reproduction
  32. Define chiefly redistribution.
    Resources flow from commoners to chief, and then back in the form of feasts and ceremonies.
  33. Emergence of Social Stratification
  34. What led to the creation of different social stratification in cheifdoms?
    Differential access to resources.
  35. Who are the superordinate and who are the subordinate?
    The elite are the superordinate and the commoners are the subordinate.
  36. Limited movement up or down in a social system due to marriage within one's own group is known as ______ _______.
    stratum endogamy
  37. Weber
  38. What are Weber's three dimensions of social stratification?
    • Wealth/economic status
    • Power/political status
    • Prestige/social status
  39. Nation-States
  40. Nation-states are _____ political units with social classes and a ______ government based on (written) rule of ______.
    autonomous; formal; law
  41. Nation-states are ____ areas with ______ populations.
  42. Political Characteristics of Nation-States
  43. How do nation-states enforce population control? (3 ways)
    • Through:
    • fixed boundaries
    • establishment of citizenship
    • census
  44. The judiciary includes: (3 things)
    • laws
    • judiciary
    • judges
  45. Enforcement includes permanent _______ and ________.
    military; police
  46. Fiscal authority includes systems of ________.
  47. When it comes to population control, what is strictly monitored?
    Immigration and migration of people.
  48. ________ rights are granted to citizens and non-citizens.
  49. When it comes to the judiciary, laws are based on precedent (definition) and legislative proclamations (______ _____).
    past legal decisions; new laws
  50. True/False: Nation-states legally intervene in family affairs. If false, why?
  51. When it comes to enforcement: who enforces judiciary decisions?
    State agents.
  52. _____ defends and attacks enemies of the nation; ______ enforces domestic matters; ______ collects taxes and sometimes confiscates property.
    Military; police; IRS
  53. When it comes to fiscal authority, the nation intervenes in the production, distribution, and consumption of resources by: printing and regulating ________; setting ______ rates; sometimes operating and managing _______; and redistributing resources (______).
    currency; interest; business; taxes
  54. Hegemony & Social Control
  55. Define social controls.
    Parts of social system (beliefs, practices, institutions) actively involved in maintenance of norms and regulations of conflict.
  56. Define norms.
    Cultural standards, guidelines enabling individuals to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
  57. What is Gramsci's definition of hegemony?
    Subordinates (commoners) willingly comply with domination by their ruler's values accepting the "naturalness" of domination.
  58. What are three ways elites maintain power and curb resistance?
    • Hegemony
    • Making subordinated believe that they will eventually gain power.
    • Separating or isolating people while watching them closely.
  59. What did Foucalt call this?
    The panopticon.
  60. Weapons of the Weak (James Scott)
  61. True/False: Open political (overt) resistance has usually been beneficial for subordinate classes. If false, why?
    False. Overt resistance has led to loss of benefits and employment, jail, physical violence, and death.
  62. What are the methods and practices that common people use to subvert and resist their domination by the ruling class known as?
    Everyday forms of resistance?
  63. Characteristics of Everyday Forms of Resistance
  64. These do/do not require much planning or coordination, are often done by an ______ or ________ groups of people, and they avoid direct confrontation with _______.
    do not; individual; small; authority
  65. Other Forms of Resistance by Subordinate Class
  66. Antihegemonic talk, speech, gestures, actions, also known as antihegemonic _________.