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Marbury v. Madison
- allowed the exercise of judicial review in the United States.
- the idea that courts may oversee and nullify the actions of another branch of government
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
- against Plessy for sitting in a white car.
- he was an eighth black.
- "seperate but equal"
Brown v. Board
establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional.
Schenck v. United States
freedom of expression, "clear and present danger"
Brandenberg v Ohio
It held that government cannot punish inflammatory speech unless it is directed to inciting and likely to incite imminent lawless action.
Gitlow v. New York
Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution had extended the reach of certain provisions of the First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states.
Mapp v. Ohio
decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Engel v. Vitale
unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and require its recitation in public schools.
Miranda v. Arizona
Miranda rights: a part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights
statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
- The Court's decision in this case established the "Lemon test", which details the requirements for legislation concerning religion.
- It consists of three prongs:
- The government's action must have a secular legislative purpose;
- The government's action must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion;
- The government's action must not result in an "excessive government entanglement" with religion.
Roe v. Wade
The Court held that a woman's right to an abortion is determined by the stage of pregnancy, and the state cannot prohibit abortion before viability
Roe v. Wade prompted a national debate that continues today, about issues including whether and to what extent abortion should be legal,
Bush v. Gore
Florida Supreme Court's method for recounting ballots was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition
By striking down these two provisions, the Court rejected an invitation to increase the amount of speech that would be categorically outside the protection of the First Amendment.