Parasite Review #1 (pt.2)

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Parasite Review #1 (pt.2)
2013-02-05 14:50:41

Parasites #2
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  1. SC Eucestoda
       O Tetraphyllidea
         F Phyllobothriidae
    • Elasmobranchs
    • 40x
    • 4 bothridia without hooks
  2. SC Eucestoda
       O Pseudophyllidea
    • Fish-eating carnivores (fish, bears, humans)
    • Scolex with 2 bothria (shallow muscular grooves)
  3. O Pseudophyllidea
       Schistocephalus Solidus
    • Coelom of stickleback (IH)
    • DS
    • Segmentation and lack of scolex
    • PITT
    • 2 Bothria
  4. SC Eucestoda
      Order Cyclophyllidea
    • IH- fleas
    • DH- Dogs and cats
    • Diphlidium caninum
    • 100x
    • scolex with 4 acetabula- sometimes with hooked rostellum
    • *single vitelline gland at posterior of proglottids*
    • some very pathological species in humans
  5. SC Eucestoda
       O Proteocephala
    • Freshwater fish/Herps
    • Scollex with 4 acetabula (sometimes with hooked rostellum)
    • Multiple vitellaria along lateral lines of proglottids
  6. Phylum Rhombozoa
       Dicyemennea spp.

    Rhombogen stage
    • DH: kidney of Octopus bimaculoides
    • Note: Infusoriform larvae, polar cells, sexual stage
  7. Phylum Rhombozoa
        Dicyemennea spp.

    Nematogen stage
    • DH: kidney of Octopus bimaculoides
    • Note: Vermiform larvae, polar cells, asexual stage
    • 100x
  8. Dissection:
    Octopus bimaculoides
    Found Trypanorynch
  9. What are the orders of Cestodes commonly found in Elasmobranchs?
    • Trypanorhynca*
    • Tetraphyllidea*
    • Lecaniephalidea
    • Litobothridea
    • Diphyllidea
  10. SC Aspidobothria
      Multicalyx sp.
    • Note: testis, large ventral sucker
  11. C Trematoda
      SC Aspidobothria
    • DH: Branchial chamber of freshwater clam (Unionidae)
    • Note: large ventral sucker (gumshoe-like sucker characteristic of Aspidobothria)
  12. C Trematoda
       SC Aspidobothria
    • DH: Bile ducts of elasmobranch
    • Note: large uterus and single, straight gut
  13. SC Eucestoda
      Hexacanth Egg Stage
  14. SC Eucestoda
        Procercoid Stage
  15. SC Eucestoda
       Plerocercoid Larva stage
  16. Dissection: Tenebrio
    Hymenolepis diminuta
    • Beetle/onchosphere dissection
    • 100x
    • Found cysticercoid onchosphere
  17. Dissection 2 Lab #7
    • Tenebrio
    • H. diminuta
    • Found hexacanth onchosphere
  18. SC Eucestoda
      O cyclophyllidea (Families)
    • Family Taeniidae
    • Family Hymenolepididae
    • Family Dilepididae
    • Family Mesocestoididae
  19. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
    • Have scolex with four stout acetabula (usually with rostellum)
    • lateral genital pore
    • *vitelline gland is a single, compact mass located posterior to the ovary and medialy in the proglottid*
    • ovary is situated medially and is often bilobed with small ootype located betwen its lobes
    • Testes are follicuar and numerous (except Hymenolepis)
    • Eggs of this order have a thick, radially-striated embyrophore (protective outer layer surrounding embryo)
  20. SC Eucestoda
      O Cyclophyllidea (life history)
    • Do not require 2nd IH (so plerocercoid stage is skipped)
    • 1IH has no procercoid stage
    • Has cysticercoid (mammals) or cysticercus stage (inverts)
  21. SC Eucestoda
        O Cyclophyllidea
          F. Taeniidae
    • Have cysticercus
    • IH = Mammals
  22. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Taenia saginata
    • "Beef Tapeworm"
    • only humans serve as DH and cattle often serve as IH
    • *no rostellum*
    • 15-20 lateral branches per side
    • larval worms cysts - cysticercus
  23. SC Eucestoda  
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Taenia solium
    • DH- Humans
    • IH- Pigs (sometimes humans)
    • When humans accidentally ingest eggs, larvae encyst in various tissues and cause severe pathology
    • rostellum with 2 rows of hooks
    • 7-13 lateral branches per side
    • Cysticerci become large fluid filled sacs surrounding the invaginated scolex- aka "bladder worms"
  24. Compare T. saginata and T. solium
  25. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Taenia muliceps
    • DH- Carnivores (esp. dogs)
    • IH- Herbivorous mammals
    • encyst in IH forming a coenurus- type of bladder worm that develops gradually and the inner layer of the bladder becomes a germinal layer from which protoscolices arise by the hundreds inside the bladder
    • asexual budding of protoscolices
  26. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Echinococcus granulosus
    • DH- Carnivores & canines
    • IH- Herbivores & humans
    • If humans are infected as IH they get hydatidosis
    • Adults possess an armed rostellum
    • *strobila usually only consists of 3 proglottids*
    • 46-65 testes
  27. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Echinococcus granulosus (cyst)
    • forms unilocular hydatid cyst
    • hydatid grows very large and holds a sac full of brood capuses- texture is referred to as "hydatid sand"cysts can grow to hold 15 quarts of fluid!
  28. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Echinococcus multilocularis
    • DH: Foxes, Dogs, cats, coyotes
    • IH: Rodents
    • multilocular hydatid bud germinal layers external to the origninal hydatid to produce masses of hydatids that can spread drastically throughout host tissues
    • 15-30 testes
  29. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
         F Hymenolepididae
    • *1-4 testes*
    • cysticercoid
    • IH = arthropods
  30. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Hymenolepididae
            Hymeolepis nana
    • IH= optional
    • DH= Rodents and humans
    • Does NOT have hooks
  31. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Hymenolepididae
             Hymenolepis diminuta
    • "Rat Tapeworm"
    • DH- Rats and humans
    • IH- grain beetles (Tenebrio spp)
    • rostellum without hooks
    • *no genital pore*
    • adult worms pass eggs with the feces of the rat
    • hooked oncosphere emerges, burrows out of the gut and encysts in the hemocoel called a cysticercoid
    • rats ingest infected beetles
    • cystocercoid ^
  32. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Dilepididae
            Dipylidium caninum
    • DH- Dogs and cats
    • IH- Fleas
    • Each proglottid has 2 sets of reproductive organs, apparent by *2 genital pores opening at either side of each proglottid*
    • rostellum with hooks
    • Gravid
  33. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Mesocestoididae
    • IH rodents and reptiles
    • DH birds and mammals
    • cysticercoid
    • 4 suckers, no rostellum
    • only one that undergoes asexual reproduction in DH
  34. Phylum Nematoda
    • Order Strongylida
    •    F Trichostrongylidae
    •    F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
    • Order Oxyurida (pinworms)
    • Order Enoplida (whipworms)
    • Order Ascaridida (roundworms)
  35. Nematodes Info
    • Most with direct life cycles, few with IH
    • paratenic host- parasite can survive but not necessary for LC
    • Dauer juveniles- arrested development
    • Eutely- Number of cells remains constant through out life of adult (cell enlargment)
  36. Phylum Nematoda (morphology)
    • bilatterally symmetrical, long, slender, and tapering at both ends
    • movement is distinctly sinusoidal
    • outer body is covered by a cuticle (protects from dessication, a barrier to host immune response, and a turgid surface for hydrostatic muscle contraction
    • have separate sexes with high degree of sexual dimorphism
    • testes elongate throughout the body
    • copulatory spicules at posterior end of worm (used to hold vulva open)
    • bursa in some are used to grasp females
    • cuticle is molted a number of times during larval development
  37. Phylum Nematoda
       O strongylida
         F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
    • Possess a buccal capsule (large and scleroritzed "mouth" that is armed with cutting plates, teeth or lancet-like structures)
    • J3 is infective stage (eventually make it to the alveoli in lungs)
    • pathology is intensity dependent
    • eggs are large and oval
    • males hve large bursa with rays
    • Necator americanus
    • Anycylostoma duodenale
    • Ancylostoma caninum
    • Haemonchus contortus
  38. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Necator americanus
    • Human hookworm
    • Buccal capsule has cutting plates
    • Note lack of teeth
    • May have paratenic hosts
  39. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
              Necator americanus (male)
    • Note copulatory bursa
    • Note spicules fused distally
  40. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Angiostrongulus cantonensis
    • IH slugs and snails
    • DH lungs of rats
    • Infection by ingestion of IH
  41. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Angiostrongylus cantonensis (male)
    • Note prominent spicules
  42. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
    • Intestine of cold-blooded verts
    • IH- freshwater copepods
    • Note buccal capsule with pair of large sclerotized valves
  43. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Ancylostoma caninum
    • Dog hookworm
    • juveniles that penetrate humans can cause "creeping eruption" or cutaneous larval migrations, since larvae are "lost" in the wrong host
    • J4 developmental arrest
    • Note buccal capsule carrying plates with teeth
  44. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Ancylostoma caninum (m & f)
    • Female: Note lack of copulatory bursa on posterior end
    • Copulatory bursa of male Ancylostoma caninum- Note that spicules are not fused

  45. Family Trichostrongylidae
    • Small buccal capsule
    • J3 crawl to vegetation
  46. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Trichostrongylidae (hookworms)
          Haemonchus contortus
    • Sheep hookworm; lives in 4th stomach: abomasum
    • causes major losses in affected livestock
    • buccal capsule is small and has a single tooth
    • "barber pole worm"
  47. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Trichostrongylidae (hookworms)
          Haemonchus contortus (female)
    • Note vulva flap
  48. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Trichostrongylidae (hookworms)
          Haemonchus contortus (male)
    Note two prominent spicules with barbs at the tips