chapter 53

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139shay
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195597
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chapter 53
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2013-01-26 23:54:44
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chapter 53
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  1. hemoconcentration
    a condition in which the concentration of blood cells is increased in proportion to the plasma
  2. hemolysis
    the destruction of dissolution of red blood cells with subsequent release of hemoglobin
  3. plasma
    the liquid portion of whole blood that contains active clotting agents
  4. serum
    the liquid portion of whole blood that remains after the blood has clotted
  5. thixotropic gel
    a material that appears to be a solid until subjected to a disturbance , such as centrifugation , whereupon it becomes a liquid
  6. phlebotomy is the
    practice of drawing blood has its roots in the ancient practice of restoring the four body humors:

    • . blood
    • . phlegm
    • . yellow bile
    • . and black bile
  7. the foundation of all medical treatment was to keep these humor in balance by
    • . purging
    • . starving
    • . vomiting
    • . bloodletting
  8. the art of bloodletting was flourishing by the
    middle ages both barbers and surgeons performed it
  9. red represented
    blood
  10. white represented
    the tourniquet
  11. the pole represented
    the stick the patient squeezed during the procedure
  12. ASCP stands for
    society of clinical pathologists
  13. the most common method of obtaining blood is
    venipuncture in which the blood is taken directly from a surface vein
  14. ______ requires healthcare workers to wear gloves durning venipuncture
    OSHA

    occupational safety and health administration
  15. the standard procedure for venipuncture established by the
    clinical and laboratory standards institute ( CLSI )
  16. tourniquets tied for more than 1 minute
    destorys red blood cells
  17. tourniquets are tied
    3 to 4 inches above the elbow immediately before the venipuncture procedure begins longer than 1 minute greatly increases the possibility of hemoconcentration
  18. the tonurniquet should not be tied so tightly as to
    impede arterial blood flow, this restricts venous blood return , resulting in poor venous distention
  19. antiseptics
    70% isopropyl alcohol , rubbing alcohol

    . alcohol DOES NOT sterilize the skin , it inhibits the reproduction of bacteria that might contaminate the sample

    . alcohol should remain on the skin 30 to 60 seconds
  20. do not use alcohol when a
    sample for a blood alcohol test is drawn, use sterile soap pads, benzalkonium chloride , or povidone-iodine ( betadine ) can be used instead
  21. if a blood culture is ordered
    . povidone-iodine solution is commonly used and chlorhexidine gluconate or benzalkonium chloride

    . more vigorous cleansing is required for a blood culture sample

    . cultures must be drawn into a sterile tube or a blottle specifically designed for the test 
  22. ____ tube is the most common collection system in use
    evacuated ( vacutainer )
  23. tube volumes range from
    2 to 15 mL

    . the vacuum in each tube draws a measured amount of blood into the tube

    . be sure to match the needle gauge to the size of the tube

    . the larger the tube the greater the vacuum and the more likely it is the blood will hemolyze if a high-gauge needle with a small lumen is used
  24. all tubes EXCEPT the ___-___ one contain an additive
    red-topped
  25. anticoagulants
    prevent blood from clotting
  26. edta
    lavender top prevents clumping and preserves the appearance of blood cells for microscopic examination
  27. without a clot activator blood clots in
    30 to 60 minutes after which it must be centrifuged
  28. needles have two parts
    hub and the shaft

    shaft differs in length ranging from ¾ to 1½ inches
  29. the hole in the bevel is called the
    lumen
  30. lumen reffered to as the
    gauge.

    the gauge has a numeric value the higher the number the smaller the lumen.
  31. the smallest gauge needles
    23 gauge

    fragile veins , elderly and very young patients
  32. the hub is the
    point where the needle attaches to the syringe or the needle holder
  33. syringes are used
    when there is concern that the strong vacuum in a stoppered tube might collapse the vein
  34. butterfly needles
    are designed for use on small veins such as those in the hand or in pediatric patients the most common needle size is 23 gauge the needle is ½ to ¾ inch long
  35. SESIP
    sharp with engineered sharps injury protection
  36. postexposure management of needle sticks
    foreign material is removed

    site is washed for 10 minutes with an antimicrobial soap 10% iodine solution or chlorine-base antiseptic

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