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“Lost confidence in their past, faith in their present and hope in their future”
H. Dela Costa
“But it will never come ! The peaceful struggle must remain a dream, for Spain will never learn from her earlier colonies in South America. Spain can still win the Philippines for herself forever, if only Spain were more reasonable !”
Rizal to Bluementritt
it is evident that he believed in the inevitability of Philippine separation from Spain
The reason why nationalist historians are unable to see this is because of their “failure to distinguish between what Rizal (and other Filipinos who shared his ideas) were able to say PUBLICLY and what they felt PRIVATELY”.
"the demands of the ilustrado reformists were necessarily delimited by their class position," and Rizal was a reformist to the end
"Rizal never advocated independence nor did he advocate armed resistance to the government. He urged reform from within, by publicity, by public education and appeal to the public conscience."
W. Cameron Forbes
Rizal was not an enemy of the state
Wenceslao E. Retana
Noli Me Tangere as Catalyst of Revolution
John Schumacher SJ
What were some failures over the interpretation of Rizal?
(1) failure to distinguish bet. what ______ were able to say ______ and what they felt privately(2) failure to read Rizal's Noli and his writings within context ______________ he was publishing(3) failure to see the Noli as a ________________: Sucesos til______
(1) failure to distinguish bet. what Rizal and other Filipinos were able to say publicly and what they felt privately
(2) failure to read Rizal's Noli and his writings within context of his personal correspondence at the time h was publishing
(3) failure to see the Noli as a well-thought-out long-range plan
CHARTER FOR FILIPINO NATIONALISM
What was found in the Noli?
- 1. Filipinos must bring reforms to themselves
- 2. bring confidence to themselves, experience worth
- 3. they should be aware of what is wrong with the Philippine society
In the Noli, what was his situation toward:
- Filipinos: realize their failures and advocate change
- Spain: separation from Spain through peaceful means
- Philippines: not ready
Filipinos as bad as the friars
In the Noli, what was meant by nationalism?
- - Noli did not glorify the race
- - sketch of the present state of the country
Morga was a___________________ and __________________
book that showed the scholarly analysis of the Philippines at the Spanish contact
last moments of our ancient nationality
Simoun was to
rouse up Filipinos to a revolutionary cosnciousness, but he ended up dying
Finally, what is the message of Rizal?
- - endure oppression and work-- active resistance to evil
- - we must win it by deserving it, exalting reason and dignity of the person, loving what is just, what is great, even to the point of dying for it
Result: earn freedom
ready to fight for our rights and less tolerant of tyranny and suffer for our rights
Rizal did not advocate armed revolution, but
bring ready to shed one's own blood for the people that one will have the courage to resist any attack on human dignity
Apart from an armed resistance, a revolution could mean...
willingness to risk shedding one's own blood for the sake of the people
sought freedom through practical methods, kept up with reforming in europe
Mercelo H. del Pilar
Gist of Rizal's books:
- - loving what is good, what is great and even to the point of dying for it
- - defend one another against all violence and injustice
- - national unity must be undertaken by the Filipinos themselves
- - Filipinos should act as free men and women, and demand that their dignity as such be recognized by others
Why did Rizal not join the revolution?
- - premature
- - success is impossible for the time
- - question of opportunity and not of principles and objectives
How was Rizal revolutionary?
goal creat a nation of Filipinos conscious of their human and national dignity and ready to sacrifice themselves to defend it
Imagination In History
imagination is an important and necessary in the writing of fiction, drama and poerty
Acc. to TA, history is ________
a recreation of the past
an aspect of historical imagination, bears upon the facts in such a way that the latter becomes a tool, not the matter, of the historian
a historian's imagination is fettered by facts
there is an artistic aspect to it with much feeling, nay and PASSION
a historian employs historical IMAGINATION to the fullest extent allowed by his sources
History can approximated the past only if the historian is endowed by a lively imagination which recaptured the action of the past
What conditions facts according to TA?
insertion of statements those made by a historian's authorities or sources
historical imagination: recreating the past from facts and evidences
uses literal imagination
What makes interpolation successful?
prior knowledge of the setting
knowledge of subsequent events and time
History is not of those studies antiquity called umbratiles, for which a calm mind and industrious habits suffice. It touches the deepest problems of the human life; it requires the whole man with all his passions. Soul is as necessary to it as a poem or work of art, and the individuality of the writer should be reflected upon.
...imagination pursuing the fact and fastening upon it
Let science and research of the historian find the fact, and let imagination and art make clear its significance
George Macaulay Trevelyan
What are the two requirements to make interpolation?
- 1. must have high level of probability
- 2. must not affect the final outcome scenario that can happen in real life