Linguistics autumn 2012 předchozí testy

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Linguistics autumn 2012 předchozí testy
2013-02-07 23:51:51

autumn 2012
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  1. The most extreme or typical realizations of the various positions in which vowels are ponounced are called
  2. Name the underlined morpheme in the word happiness
  3. The discipline that studies how sounds are formed in the mouth, the gloths and the nasal cavity is called
  4. Give an example of the autosemantic part of speech
    fairly precise meaning by themselves

    - the girls, the two American girls,rapidly, unexpectedly, happily..

    -railway station, door
  5. Give an example of the synsemantic part of speech
    (very general concept such as spatial, temporal or causal relations and acquire specific meanings only in conjunction with autosemantic noun)

    -the, a, from, to, he, she
  6. What is the following structure called in the phrase grammar? This is one of the first tests in the English department
  7. Languages that express grammatical relations through word order and free grammatical morphemes are called
  8. Name the word formation process that gave rise to the following word to bottle
    conversion with zero derivation
  9. What kind of word formation process results in the merger of two words, such as information + entertainment -> infotaintment
  10. The superordinate term from the pair rose v. flower is called
  11. Semantic categorization of concepts into a clear centre and fuzzy periphery
    semantic prototype?
  12. In pragmatics, the ways in which links are established between sentences
  13. Halliday's functions corresponding to the three components of register
    • Function 1: ideational f. (field)
    • Function 2: interpersonal (tenor)
    • Function 3: textual (mode)
  14. Jacobson's function which focuses on the code
    Metalinguistic function
  15. The philosopher who introduced the theory of speech acts
    J.L. Austin
  16. Geographical, social, etc. varieties of language are called
  17. Linguistics studying language at a particular time in history of the language
    synchronic linguistics
  18. What part of England is linguistically more progressive?
  19. What part of England is linguistically more conservative?
    North - rural areas
  20. The name of a new variety spoken in the Greater London area since the 1980s
    Estuary (ústí) English
  21. The beginning of the Middle English period was around the year
  22. The most famous literary work from the Old English period is
  23. What was the result of William Caxton's technical innovation on the English language after 1476?
    Printing press -> standardization of different dialects of English
  24. The groundbreaking work Cours de linguistique générale was written by
    Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye (from Ferdinand de Saussure's notes)
  25. The actual linguistic realizations through which the underlying structure of the linguistic system can be studied is called
  26. In semiotics, the element of the linguistic sign that is the physical vehicle (e.g. sound) for conveying some meaning is called
    Signifier / Signifiant (in opposition to Signified/Signifié)
  27. The main figure in formal linguistics - a representative of transformation and generative grammar:
    Noam Chomsky
  28. What school of linguistics did Nikola Trubeckoy belong to?
    Prague School
  29. One of the properties of language referring to the fact that there is no natural connection between a linguistic form and its meaning
    arbitrariness (=random choise)
  30. Identify the type of compound: anotary public/an attorney general
    germanic type/french type
  31. Who invented the pragmatic maxims
    Paul Grice
  32. William Labov (what school)
  33. Co je za morpheme happiness
  34. This is one of the first test in English department.
    noun phrase
  35. Language function podle Jackobsona spojená s channel
    phatic f.
  36. English period
    Geoffrey Chaucer's Cantenbury Tales
  37. Jak se jmenují znaky, kterými se zapisuje výslovnost
    /set of symbols used in dictionaries
    phonetic alphabet
  38. Jak dostaneme z Laboratory -> lab
  39. What word give rise to word to carpet
    conversion with zero derivation
  40. End of the Old English period
  41. Představitel Swiss school
    Ferdinand de Saussure, Cours de linguistique générale
  42. Popular London dialect
  43. Rose v. Flower subordinand term
  44. The study of linguistic change
    diachronic linguistics
  45. Logical unity of test
  46. Jaký typ jazyka používá inflection
  47. Jaký typ compounding je couch potato
  48. Unit of meaning not physically carrying meaning
  49. Language functions podle Bühlerova organon modelu
    • 1)referential f.
    • 2)expressive
    • 3)conative
  50. Velká změna ve výslovnosti u Early Modern period
    Great Vowel Shift
  51. Language which uses case endings to express grammatical relations in a sentence
  52. Underlying language system
  53. Epic poetry
    referential function
  54. Lyric poetry
    emotive/expressive function
  55. Poetry in 2nd person (religious texts)
    conative f.
  56. Henry Sweet
  57. Nikolai Sergeyevitsch Trubetzkoy
  58. Noam Chomsky - Linguistic Society of America
    Generative school
  59. A type of sign which is based on learned conventional relationship between the form of the sign and the object, e.g. a red light as a signal to traffic, any word with the property of arbitrariness, shapes of letters of the alphabet and shapes of numeral
  60. Word formation: Ad <- Advertisement
  61. Religious, journalism, at work,...; adoption of different styles; most registers used during the day
  62. subject matter of the situation, what are you talking about (science, advertising, law..)
  63. relation between speaker and hearer (participants), different formality (friend to friend)
  64. Textual organization/formal shape of the message (choice between written or spoken medium, thematic organization) + function style: scientific,  artistic
  65. Ability of language to temporally and spatially distant thing
  66. LAnguage of 2 mutually understanding groups
  67. Language that uses suffixes to express time,...
  68. Words that cannot be divided into two morphemes
  69. New word made up for a single occasion
    nonce word
  70. Who established czech teaching of "Anglistice"
    V.Mathesius (English seminar at FF UK), F. Chudoba (Brno English studies)
  71. What function/part of language is used to speak about language
    metalinguistic function
  72. morphological branches
  73. What school - Roman Jacobson
    Prague school
  74. Who established phonology
    Nikolai Sergeyevitsch Trubetzkoy
  75. Noam Chomsky was part of
    The linguistic Society of Amerika
  76. Leonard Bloomfield was part of
    The Linguistic Society of America
  77. What school was described as structural and functional??
    Swiss school??
  78. What kind of symbol bears physical reseblance (phonograph)
  79. Flower (to dafodill, rose, lilly) - superordinate term
  80. Word formation: cheat(verb) ->cheat (noun)
  81. Word formations: SALT/ radar
  82. Word formations: peddler > peddle
  83. Utilization of the means provided by the system of signs for the formation of utterances??
    la? parole?
  84. Co udělal de Saussure pro lingvistiku
    father of modern synchronically oriented linguistics
  85. Varieties of english-dialects and registers (=user related and use related)
    • -user related (dialects)[associated with particular people: geographical, temporal, social, gender, age]
    • -use related (usage, style, registers)[associated with functions, used in particular context, legall]
  86. Kdo se jako první zajímal o fonetiku
    ancient Indians (India)
  87. Variety of English
    register vs. dialects
  88. Napište nějaký typ zkracování
    • a) clipping (ad<advertisement)
    • b) acronyms (NATO)
  89. System study of the meaning of words
  90. The basic scheme of communication
    Speaker encodes content which is decoded by addressed
  91. The basic scheme of communication: Jacobson's scheme
    The addresser sends a message to the addressee (Message requires context and code at least partially common to the adresser and addressee)
  92. The basic scheme of communication (one more communicative frame)
    Somebody says something to somebody else in a certain situation with a certain intention in a particular way
  93. Human vs. animal communication
    properties unique for human: displacement, arbitrariness, productivity, cultural transmition, discreteness, duality (double articulation),

    plus others: linearity, prevarication (lying), rapid fade, non-directionality, specialization, reciprocity (listener can become speaker), vocal-auditory channel
  94. Prague school of linguistics - concepts (open question)
    worked on functional sentence perspective, implicational universals, intellectualism

    • -synchronistic approach (contrasted with diachronic
    • -systemic character of language>later formed Prague Linguistic Circle

    • Structuralists: Roman Jacobson, Nikolay Trubetzkoy (theory of phonological apposition, mutual relation of members)
    • Functionalists: Early Prague Linguistic Group (1920-1930)
    • V.Mathesius
    • -concepts of THEME = refers to fact
    • -RHEME = contains essential information
    • Havránek
    • -language as open dynamic system
    • Later generation

    I.Cejp (teaching)
  95. Pragmatic maxims (open Q.)
    • formulated by PAul Grice
    • -maxim of quality (trueness)
    • -maxim of quantity (sying as much as necessary)
    • -maxim of relevance/relation /be brief, avoid ambiguity)
    • -maxim of flouting (intentional violation) 
  96. Sociolinguistics - aims, concepts, figures
    • AIMS: enquiry into the role of language in social life
    • CONCEPTS: quantitative statistical correlations
    • FIGURES: William Labov
  97. Generativ linguistics (formalism)
    • AKA Functionalism
    • -grammatical form is wholy or partly shaped by meaning/semantics and speakers communicative needs/pragmatics
    • -Noam Chomsky
  98. Pragmatics (OQ)
    • -study of language in use (focus on utterance in its communicative context.
    •           George Yules' formulation: study of meaning as communicated by a speaker (writer) and interpreted by a listener (reader)
    •             -study of speaker meaning
    •             -contextual meaning
    •             -how much more gets communicated than what is said

    -beginning of pragmatics - 1977, connected to C. W. Morris and his triad of: syntax, semantics and pragmatics

    -it covers huge amount of topics > called the waste-basket of linguistics
  99. Speech acts (OQ)
    -formulated by John Austin in  How to do things with words

    • -systematically analyses language as communicative activity:
    • Locutionary-articulation
    • Illocutionary-stating
    • Perlocutionary-effect on the listener