Blood

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Jounrey10
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19567
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Blood
Updated:
2010-05-17 04:35:50
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blood terms
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Blood terms
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  1. blood
    is a connective tissue, consisting of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a liquid matrix
  2. formed elements
    include red blood cells, white blood cells (cells), and platelets (cell fragments)
  3. plasma
    is a pale yellow fluid that consist of about 91% water, 7% proteins and 2% other substances (ions, nutrients, gases, and waste)
  4. What are the three type of plasma proteins?
    • 1. Albumin
    • 2. Globulins
    • 3. Fibrinogen
  5. Albumin
    makes up 58% of plasma proteins and is responsible for the control of osmotic pressure
  6. Globulins
    makes up 38% of plasma proteins and function in transport, immunity and blood clotting
  7. Fibrinogen
    is a clotting factor that constitutes 4% of plasma proteins
  8. Fibrin
    a threadlike protein that forms blood clots; derived from fibrogen by the action fo thromin, which releases peptides form fibrinogen in coagulation of blood
  9. serum
    is plasma without clotting factors
  10. Red Blood Cells
    (Erthrocytes)
    transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
  11. White Blood Cells
    (Leukocytes)
    five types; which are involved in immunity
  12. Platelet
    (Thrombocyte)
    are tiny cell fragments surrounded by a plasma membrane and contains granules; releases chemical necessary for blood clotting
  13. Hematopoiesis
    the process of blood cell production
  14. Hemoglobin
    main component of red blood cell, protein, consist of 4 heme and 4 globin molecules
  15. globin
    protein portion of hemoglobin, bound to heme, transport carbon dioxide
  16. heme
    oxygen carrying, color-furnishing part of hemoglobin; requires iron
  17. erythropoiesis
    the process by which RBC are produced
  18. How much time is requird for the production of a single RBC?
    about 4 days
  19. proerythroblasts
    stem cells which gives rise to RBC line
  20. erythropoietin
    protein released by the kidneys that enhances erythopoesis by stimulatng the formation proerythroblast and the release of reticulocytes from bone marrow
  21. White Blood Cells funtions:
    • to protect the body against invading microorganisms
    • to remove dead cells and debris from the tissues by phagocytosis
  22. granulocytes
    • WBC containig large cytoplasmic granules
    • includes:
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
  23. agranulocytes
    • WBCs with very small granules that cannot be easily seen with the light microscope
    • includes:
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  24. Neutrophils
    the most common type of WBC; phagocytize microorganisms and other foreign substance; secrete lysozymes and pus
  25. Pus
    is an accumulation of dead neutrophils, cell debris, and fluid at sites of infections
  26. Basophils
    least common of WBCs; release histamine ad other chemicals that promote inflammation and heparin which prevents the formation of clots
  27. Eosinophils
    release chemicals that reduce inflammation and are involved with the destructi of certain worm parasites
  28. lymphocytes
    are the smallest of the WBCs; produce antibodies and other chemicals responsible for destroying microorganisms; contributes to allergic reactions, graft rejection, tumor control, and regulation of the immune system
  29. Monocytes
    are the largest of the WBCs; phagocytic cell in the blood; leaves the blood and becomes a macrophage which phagocytizes bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments, and other debris within tissues
  30. Megakaryocytes
    a large bone marrow cell; source of blood platelets
  31. The prevention of blood loss is done by the formation of:
    • Platelet plugs
    • Blood clots
  32. bilirubin
    the main bile pigment; a yellow pigment molecule; after it enters the intestine, is converted by bacteria into other pigments, giving urine and feces their color
  33. Jaundice
    is a yellowish staining of te skin and sclerae caused by a buildup of ble pigments in the circulation and interstitial fluids
  34. Vascular spasm
    is an immeiat but temporary constriction of a blood vessel resulting from contraction of smooth muscle within the wall of the vessel in response to injury, resulting in decrease blood flow
  35. platelet plug
    is an accumulation of platelets that can seal up a small break in a blood vessel
  36. platelet adhesion
    results in platelets sticking to collagen exposed by blood vessel damage
  37. von Willebrand factor
    is a protein produced and secreted by blood vessel endothelials cells, forms a bridge between collagen and platelets by binding to platelet surface receptors and collagen
  38. platelet release reaction
    platelet release chemicals such as, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane, which bind to thee respective receptors on ther surfaces of platelets resulting in the activation of platelets
  39. transfusion
    is the transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another
  40. infusion
    is the introduction of a fluid other than blood into the blood
  41. transfusion reactions
    includes the clumping of blood cells, repture of blood cells an clotting within the blood vessels
  42. agglutination
    clumping of the cells
  43. hemolysis
    rupture of the RBCs
  44. Type A Blood
    has type A surface antigens and plasma with anti-B antibodies
  45. Type B Blood
    has type B surface antigens and plasma with anti-A antibodies
  46. Type AB Blood
    has both type A and B surface antigens and no antibodies
  47. Type O Blood
    has neither A or B type surface antigens, but both Anti-A and anti-B plasma antibodies
  48. What blood type is a universal donor?
    Type O Blood

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