Midterm; Shaffers

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Midterm; Shaffers
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2013-01-27 13:39:09
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  1. The variable that is manipulated in an experiment
    Independant Variable
  2. The responding variable in an experiment
    Dependant Variable
  3. A living planet
    Biosphere
  4. A point of view that is personal rather than scientific
    Bias
  5. In an experiment, the group exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for one independent variable
    Control Group
  6. The study of life
    Biology
  7. A molecule containing the universal genetic code
    DNA
  8. Living things maintaining a relatively stable internal environment
    Homeostasis
  9. The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
    Metabolism
  10. The information gathered during an experiment
    Data
  11. A testable, scientific explanation for a set of observations 
    Hypothesis 
  12. A signal to which an organism responds 
    Stimuli 
  13. A well-tested epxlanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses
    Theory
  14. Form of reproduction in which the new organism has a single parent
    Asexual Reporoduciton 
  15. Why do scientists use the metric system?
    -Easier to convert
  16. If an atom contains 11 protons and 12 neutrons, its atomic number is ____.
    11
  17. A covalent bond is formed as the result of ____ electrons. 
    Sharing
  18. A substance with a pH of 4 is called an _____.
    Acid
  19. In a solution of saltwater, salt is the _____ and water is the ________.
    Solute ; Solvent
  20. Attraction between molecules of different substances
    Adhesion
  21. Attraction between molecules of the same substance
    Cohesion 
  22. A compound that produces hydroxide (OH-) in solution
    Base
  23. Any compound that forms H+ ions in solution
    Acid
  24. A bond formed when elecgtrons are transferred from one atom to another atom 
    Ionic Bond
  25. The attraction between the oppositely charged regions of two molecules
    Hydrogen Bond
  26. A charged atom
    Ion
  27. A substance formed when two or more electrons combine in definite proportions 
    Compound
  28. A pure substance made up of only  one type of atom
    Element 
  29. The breaking down of water molecules into ions of opposite charge
    Dissociation 
  30. How many molecules are represented in this equation:
    2H202 ---> 2H20 + 02
    Five
  31. How many atoms are in the whole equation:
    2H202 ---> 2H20 + 02
    Sixteen
  32. How animals store excess sugar
    Gylcogen 
  33. The monomers of proteins 
    Amino Acids
  34. Fats and oils
    Lipids
  35. DNA and RNA
    Nucleic Acids
  36. Glycogen, starch, and cellulose
    Polysaccharides 
  37. Type of bond that forms between amino acids
    Peptide
  38. -COOH
    Carboxyl Group
  39. The number of covalent bonds carbon can form with other atoms
    4
  40. The main source of energy for living things (a monosaccharide)
    Glucose
  41. How plants store excess sugar
    Starch
  42. An ________ fatty acid has at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
    Usaturated
  43. Means 'giant' molecules
    Macromolecules 
  44. A nucleotide is a monomer of what macromolecule?
    Nucleic Acids 
  45. The three parts of a nucleotide
    • - 5-carbon sugar
    • - phosphate group
    • - nitrogen base
  46. If the solution is isotonic..
    • no net movement of water
    • cell shape: stays the same
  47. If the solution is hypotonic..
    • net movement of water into the cell
    • cell shape: swells
  48. If the solution is hypertonic..
    • movement of water out of the cell
    • cell shape: shrinks
  49. The movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is called..
    Osmosis 
  50. A substance that moves by passive transport tends to move away from the area _____.
    where it is more concentrated
  51. What is the difference between passive transport and active transport?
    • Passive: no energy used
    • Active: energy used
  52. The organelle where photosynthesis occurs
    Chloroplast
  53. What is the discussion equation for photosynthesis?
    6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H1206 + 602
  54. What are the two sets of reactions that occur in photosynthesis?
    • light dependent
    • light independent
  55. Where do light independent reactions occur?
    Stroma
  56. Where do light dependent reactions occur?
    Thylakoid
  57. Light independent reactions are also known as ..
    The calvin cycle
  58. Light dependent reactions are also known as ..
    Light reactions
  59. What are the substances called that absorb light energy?
    Pigments
  60. Green light is visible because it is reflected or absorbed?
    Refelcted
  61. The short term energy storage molecule that cells use to do work is called..
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  62. The ultimate source of energy for life on earth is the __.
    Sun
  63. Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light ; also called the Calvin cycle
    Light -independent reactions
  64. Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
    Light -dependent reactions
  65. An organism that obtains energy from sunlight
    Autotroph
  66. An organism that obtains energy from other living things
    Heterotroph
  67. The process used by autotrophs that converts light energy into stored energy
    Photosynthesis
  68. The main pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
    Chlorophyll
  69. Where is the main site of photosynthesis?
    Palisade mesophyll
  70. What is the function of the xylem?
    transporting water
  71. What is the function of the phloem?
    transporting food
  72. What is the function of the bundle sheath?
    it protects the vascular bundle / veins
  73. Before the Krebs cycle can proceed, pyruvic acid must be converted into what?
    Acetyl CoA
  74. The net number of ATP molecules made directly by glycolysis is what?
    2
  75. In lactic acid fermentation:
    A. oxygen is consumed
    B. NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
    C. electrons pass through the electron transport chain
    D. lactic acid is converted into pyruvic acid
    B. NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. ATP is synthesized in the electron transport chain when which of the following moves across the inner mitochondrial membrane?
    A. NADH
    B. Protons
    C. Citric acid
    D. Oxygen
    B. Protons (H+)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. The process carried out by yeast that causes bread dough to rise is ..
    Alcoholic fermentation
  78. By accepting electrons and protons, the oxygen used in aerobic respiration turns into
    H2O
  79. Where does the Krebs cycle occur?
    Mitochondrial matrix
  80. Most of the ATP synthesized in aerobic respiration is made ..
    Through chemiosmosis
  81. What is the equation for cellular respiration?
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O
  82. What are the two main types of fermentation?
    • Lactic Acid
    • Alcoholic
  83. What does it mean if a process is "anaerobic" ? Which part of cellular respiration is anaerobic?
    • No oxygen is required or present
    • Glycolysis
  84. The part of the cell cycle in which each of the chromosomes in a cell replicates
    Interphase
  85. The phase in the process of mitosis during which nuclear division is completed; the spindle dissolves and the nuclear envelope and nucleolus form
    Telophase
  86. The phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes are first visible; the nuclear envelope and nucleolus break down; the spindle begins to form
    Prophase
  87. The phase in mitosis in which the sister chromatids become aligned along the equator
    Metaphase
  88. The phase in mitosis during which the sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles in the cell
    Anaphase
  89. The division of the cell cytoplasm which follows mitosis
    Cytokenisis
  90. Newly formed cells are called
    Daughter cells
  91. During cell division, each part of a double-stranded chromosome, joined by a centromere (after replication)
    Chromatid
  92. A fanlike system of microtubules that help seperate the duplicated chromosomes
    Spindle 
  93. A plane in the middle of the spindle that is perpendicular to the spindle fibers; also called the metaphase plate
    Equator
  94. The point where a pair of chromatids are attached to each other
    Centromere
  95. An animal cell organelle visible during interphase; paired cylindrical structures made of microtubules
    Centriole

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