Patho I Exam 3

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Patho I Exam 3
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2013-01-27 22:28:44
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Inflammation Disturbances circulation
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Patho I Exam 3 Inflammation / Disturbances in circulation
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  1. a tissue reaction to irritation, infection or injury
    Inflammation
  2. A morbid change or series of reactions produced in the tissue by an irritant
    Inflammation
  3. Must have death of cells for this to occur
    Inflammation
  4. Functions of inflammation (3)
    • 1. to destroy the irritating agent and remove it
    • 2. if that fails, the process will attempt to keep the irritant localized
    • 3. to provide the mechanisms for repair or replacement of damaged tissue
  5. Causes of inflammation (4)
    • 1. Physical Irritants
    • 2. Chemical irritants
    • 3. Infectious Agents
    • 4. Immunological Reactions
  6. Cardinal signs/symptoms of inflammation (5)
    • 1. Calor - Heat
    • 2. Rubor - Redness
    • 3. Dolor - Pain
    • 4. Tumor - Swelling
    • 5. Functio Laesa - Altered Function
  7. Process of inflammation (4)
    • 1. Congestion
    • 2. Exudation
    • 3. Suppuration
    • 4. Resolution
  8. a vascular reaction
    congestion
  9. A form of pathological active hyperemia
    congestion
  10. the arteries dilate allowing excess blood or tissue fluid into the affected organ or tissue
    congestion
  11. to "flush out" the tissues of any foreign matter
    congestion
  12. the release of histamine causes the capillary walls to become more permeable
    congestion
  13. fluid or cellular debris exuding from blood vessels and deposited in tissues
    Exudation
  14. the outpouring of normally intravascular cells into injured tissue
    Exudation
  15. dilutes toxin
    Exudation
  16. Chemotaxis occurs here
    Exudation
  17. the attraction of white blood cells to the site of inflammation
    Chemotaxis
  18. the formation of pus
    suppuration
  19. a protein-rich fluid containing white blood cells and cell debris
    pus
  20. is often due to the presence of pyogenic bacteria or some other infectious agent
    suppuration
  21. if there is not a need for extra leukocytes to fight an infection, this step may not occur
    suppuration
  22. the termination of the inflammatory response with the affected part returning to its normal state
    resolution
  23. occurs by either physiological or pathological regeneration (repair)
    resolution
  24. Inflammatory Lesions (7)
    • 1. Abscess
    • 2. Ulcer
    • 3. Furuncle (boil)
    • 4. Carbuncle
    • 5. Cellulitis or Phlegmon
    • 6. Pustule
    • 7. Vesicle
  25. a circumscribed collection of pus
    abscess
  26. surrounded by a wall of inflammatory tissue
    abscess
  27. there are many different types
    abscess
  28. an open sore or lesion of the skin or a mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue
    Ulcer

    • Ex. Decubitus Ulcer
    •          Bedsore
  29. an abscess or pyogenic infection of a sweat gland or hair follicle
    Furuncle (boil)
  30. several communicating boils with the production and discharge of pus and dead tissue
    carbuncle
  31. often located deep in the subcutaneous tissues of the neck or buttocks
    carbuncle
  32. a diffuse, noncircumscribed, inflammatory infiltration of the tissues
    • cellulitis
    • phlegmon
  33. usually subcutaneous
    • cellulitis
    • phlegmon
  34. forms pus pockets
    • cellulitis
    • phlegmon
  35. a small, circumscribed elevation on the skin containing pus
    pustule

    an in a pimple
  36. a small, circumscribed elevation of skin containing a thin, non-purulent fluid
    vesicle

    commonly known as a blister
  37. Types of lesions based on the composition of the exudate (3)
    • 1. Serous
    • 2. Purulent
    • 3. Hemorrhagic
  38. protein-rich with white blood cells
    serous
  39. pus caused by pyogenic organisms
    purulent
  40. full of red blood cells
    hemorrhagic
  41. formed by the accumulation of cells and fluid from the lumens of blood vessels in the injured area
    inflammatory exudates
  42. if present, this plays an important part in determining the nature of the exudate
    a microbe causing infection
  43. postmortem conditions if inflamed tissue (4)
    • 1. virulent bacteria - for pus formation
    • 2. rapid decomposition
    • 3. reduced circulation
    • 4. possible odor
  44. accumulation of fluid in the tissues
    • Edema
    • Dropsy

    (condition not a disease)
  45. causes of Edema (Dropsy)
    • 1. increased permeability of capillary walls
    • 2. increased capillary pressure due to venous obstruction of heart failure
    • 3. inflammatory conditions
    • 4. fluid and electrolyte disturbances
  46. examples of Edema (Dropsy) (5)
    • 1. Anasarca
    • 2. Ascites
    • 3. Hydrothorax
    • 4. Hydropericardium
    • 5. Hydrocele
  47. generalized edema in the subcutaneous tissues
    anasarca
  48. may be a result of generalized passive hyperemia
    Anasarca
  49. Anasarca is often seen in (3):
    • 1. heart failure - espeially around the feet and ankles
    • 2. liver disease
    • 3. kidney disease
  50. serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
    ascites
  51. serous fluid in the thoracic or pleural cavity
    hydrothorax
  52. edematous fluid in the pericardial sac
    hydropericardium
  53. edematous fluid in any sac-like cavity
    hydrocele
  54. often occurs in the scrotum due to inflammation of the testes or other parts
    hydrocele
  55. an excessive amount of blood in a body part
    • hyperemia
    • congestion
  56. due to an increased arterial supply
    active or arterial hyperemia
  57. supplies increased nourishment to organs or tissues doing increased work
    • Physiological
    • Active or Arterial Hyperemia
  58. initiates inflammation and forms one of the most important features of it
    • Pathological
    • Active or Arterial hyperemia
  59. due to decreased venous drainage or a blockage
    Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  60. Always pathological
    Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  61. usually due to obstruction of a vein by a thrombus or embolus, thickening of the vessel wall, or pressure from an outside lesion such as a neoplasm (tumor) or enlarged organ
    • Local
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  62. may lead to local edema
    • Local
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  63. usually due to a heart disorder
    • Generalized
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  64. may lead to anasarca
    • Generalized
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  65. the flow of blood through the lungs is often reduced
    • Generalized
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  66. less blood is oxygenated
    • Anoxemia
    • Generalized
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  67. less oxygen is in the tissues
    • Hypoxia
    • Generalized
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  68. shortness of breath
    • Dyspnea
    • Generalized
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  69. a bluish discoloration of the skin, lips, nail beds and mucous membranes
    • Cyanosis
    • Generalized
    • Passive or Venous Hyperemia
  70. a crucial temporary reduction in the arterial supply of blood to a given part of the body
    Ischemia
  71. a local anemia caused by obstruction of arterial blood supply
    Ischemia
  72. causes of Ischemia (4)
    • 1. Thrombosis
    • 2. Embolism
    • 3. Athero/Arteriosclerosis
    • 4. Outside pressure on an artery
  73. Ischemia may lead to or cause an
    Infarction
  74. the formation of an area of necrosis caused by an obstruction of arterial supply
    Infarction
  75. the formation of a solid mass or blood clot within the heart of a blood vessel during life
    thrombosis
  76. formed from one or more of the normal constituents of the blood
    thrombosis
  77. A mass attached to a vessel wall
    thrombus
  78. not attached to a vessel wall
    Postmortem clot
  79. causes of thrombosis (4)
    • 1. injury to the blood vessel by trauma, degeneration, or inflammation
    • 2. Slow rate of blood flow
    • 3. Disease of the blood itself
    • 4. Alterations in blood composition
  80. the most common sites for thrombosis formation are in the (2)
    heart & veins
  81. the most common sites for a thrombosis of an artery (3)
    • 1. cerebral arteries
    • 2. coronary arteries
    • 3. aorta
  82. absorption of part or all of the thrombus by the activity of leukocytes and/or enzymes
    • Digestion
    • resolution
  83. the proliferation of a vascular and fibrous tissue is stimulated
    Organization
  84. the thrombus is changed into a mass of fibrous tissue
    organization
  85. characteristic of arterial as opposed to venous thromboses
    organisation
  86. capillaries taking part in the organization dilate to form new canals through which the blood can pass
    canalization
  87. arteriosclerosis - hardening of the arteries
    calcification
  88. deposits of calcium salts in the veins
    calcification
  89. forms a phlebolith
    calcification
  90. a "stone" in the veins
    phlebolith
  91. a thrombus attached to a vessel wall becomes fragmented
    fragmentation
  92. may break loose to form an embolus
    fragmentation
  93. a thrombus infected with pyogenic bacteria may become softened and disintegrate, possibly being converted into an abscess
    septic softening
  94. Changes in thrombi (6)
    • 1. Digestion/Resolution
    • 2. organization
    • 3. Canalization
    • 4. Calcification
    • 5. Fragmentation
    • 6. Septic softening
  95. consequences of thrombosis (4)
    • 1. Ischemia
    • 2. Infarction
    • 3. Passive Hyperemia
    • 4. Gangrene
  96. obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign matter carried in the bloodstream
    embolism
  97. the object is known as an embolus
    embolism
  98. Types of emboli (9)
    • 1. Fragment of thrombi
    • 2. Agglutinated bacteria
    • 3. Tumor cells
    • 4. Animal parasites
    • 5. Fat
    • 6. Gas or Air
    • 7. Foreign bodies
    • 8. Atheromatous material
    • 9. Clumps of fibrin
  99. Post-operative thrombosis is of special danger
    Fragment of thrombi
  100. fat cells in the bone marrow or fat deposits in soft tissue are ruptured by trauma and broken into smaller globules which are sucked into torn veins
    fat emboli
  101. results from surgery on the neck or thorax or in blood transfusions
    Gas or Air emboli
  102. when a vein is only partially severed preventing collapse
    Gas or Air emboli
  103. fatty material from a vessel wall
    Atheromatous material
  104. from diseased heart valves
    Clumps of fibrin
  105. consequences of embolism (4)
    • 1. Ischemia
    • 2. infarction of gangrene
    • 3. Spread of infection
    • 4. spread of tumors
  106. sudden death in coronary or cerebral arteries
    consequences of embolism
  107. no damage if part has food collateral circulation
    consequences of embolism
  108. the escape of blood from the vascular system
    hemorrhage
  109. due to ruptured blood vessel or heart chamber
    hemorrhage per rhexis
  110. the passage of blood cells through the unruptured walls of vessels
    hemorrhage pr diapedesis
  111. causes of hemorrhage ( 4)
    • 1. trauma
    • 2. diseases of the blood vessels
    • 3. hypertension (high blood pressure)
    • 4. diseases of the blood
  112. terms that apply to hemorrhage (10)
    • 1. petechia
    • 2. ecchymosis
    • 3. purpura
    • 4. hematoma
    • 5. hemoptysis
    • 6. hematemesis
    • 7. epistaxis
    • 8. melena
    • 9. hematuria
    • 10. exsanguination
  113. small pinpoint hemorrhages
    petechia
  114. due to leakage from a capillary
    petechia
  115. a small purplish patch caused by extravasation of blood into a tissue (bruise)
    ecchymosis
  116. refers to the presence of varying sizes of hemorrhages in widespread areas of the skin and mucous membranes
    purpura
  117. a tumor-like swelling or mass of blood confined to an organ, tissue, or space (head injury)
    hematoma
  118. blood in the sputum arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs
    hemoptysis
  119. blood is bright red
    hemoptysis
  120. vomiting of blood
    hematemesis
  121. of gastric origin
    hematemesis
  122. blood is generally dark and acidic
    hematemesis
  123. bleeding from the nose
    epistaxis
  124. from the greek word for "black"
    melena
  125. dark, tarry feces or vomit
    melena
  126. result of the action of gastro-intestinal secretions upon blood in the digestive tract
    melena
  127. blood in the urine
    hematuria
  128. an important sign in tumors of the urinary system
    hematuria
  129. the loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained
    exsanguination
  130. Postmordem conditions of disturbances in circulation (7)
    • 1. Diminished circulation
    • 2. Abscesses
    • 3. Hemorrhage
    • 4. Emaciation
    • 5. Dehydration
    • 6. Rapid decomposition
    • 7. Discoloration

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