Exam 1 Terminology - PAP 580

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Exam 1 Terminology - PAP 580
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2014-01-26 20:11:52
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Physical Assessment
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GA, VS, Pain, Integument, Behavior and Mental Status Exam 1
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  1. addiction
    persistent, complusive dependence on a behavior or substance
  2. affect
    an observable, usually episodic, feeling or tone expresses through voice, facial expression, and demeanor
  3. agoraphobia
    an irrational and often disabling fear of being out in public (fear of the marketplace)
  4. amnesia
    loss of memory
  5. anhydrosis
    Absence of sweating
  6. antecubital fossa
    a depression at the bend of the elbow
  7. aortic dissection
    condition where blood passes through the inner lining and between the layers of the aorta - potentially fatal
  8. auscultatory gap
    A silent interval that may be present between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, i.e. the sound disappears for a while, then reappears. Associated with atherosclerosis.
  9. axillary
    Located in or near the armpit
  10. blocking
    interruption of an afferent nerve pathway
  11. bulimia
    episodic binge eating usually followed by behavior designed to negate the caloric intake of the ingested food, most commonly purging behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse but sometimes other methods such as excessive exercise or fasting
  12. carotenemia
    The presence of excess carotene in the blood, often resulting in yellowing of the skin. Also called xanthemia
  13. character disorders
    characterized by dysfunctional interpersonal coping styles that disrupt and destabilize relationships, including those with health care providers - (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, obessive-compulsive)
  14. chills
    A feeling of cold, with shivering and pallor, sometimes accompanied by an elevation of temperature in the interior of the body
  15. chronic pain
    not associated with cancer or other medical condition that persists for more than 3-6 months
  16. circumstantiality
    A disturbance in the thought process by detail that is often tangential and irrelevant
  17. clanging
    a pattern of speech in which words are selected because of sound rather than meaning, resulting in rhyming and punning (clang association) instead of logic; normal in young children but a sign of mental disturbance in older persons
  18. clubbing
    A condition affecting the fingers and toes in which the extremities are broadened and the nails are shiny and abnormally curved
  19. coarctation of the aorta
    constriction of the aorta at the site of entry of the ductus arteriosus causing syndrome similar to stenosis of the aortic valve
  20. comedone
    A plug of keratin and sebum within a hair follicle that is blackened at the surface (blackhead)
  21. common functional syndromes
    actual medical conditions characterized by multiple symptoms that cannot be validated by PE or diagnostic testing (IBS, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome)
  22. common or concerning symptoms
    • Changes in weight
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle weakness
    • Fever, chills
    • Night sweats
  23. compulsions
    An uncontrollable impulse to perform an act, often repetitively, as an unconscious mechanism to avoid unacceptable ideas and desires which, by themselves, arouse anxiety.
  24. confabulation
    unconscious filling in of gaps in memory by telling imaginary experiences
  25. cyanosis
    blue coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to the presence of >5g/dl deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface
  26. central cyanosis
    due to circulatory or ventilatory problems that leads to poor blood oxygenation in the lungs or greater oxygen extraction due to the slowing down of blood circulation in the skin's blood vessels
  27. peripheral cyanosis
    blue tint in fingers or extremities due to inadequate circulation. All factors contributing to central cyanosis can also cause peripheral symptoms to appear, however peripheral cyanosis can be observed without there being heart or lung failures
  28. cyclothymia
    A mild mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of elation and depression
  29. delimitation
    To establish the limits or boundaries of; demarcate
  30. delusions
    A false belief strongly held in spite of invalidating evidence
  31. depersonalization
    A state in which the normal sense of personal identity and reality is lost
  32. derailment
    loosening of associations - speech in which a person shifts from one subject to others that are unrelated or related only obliquely without realizing that the subjects are not meaningfully connected
  33. detachment
    Indifference to or remoteness from the concerns of others; aloofness
  34. diaphoresis
    perceptible and excessive sweating
  35. diastolic
    The normal rhythmically occurring relaxation and dilatation of the heart chambers, especially the ventricles, during which they fill with blood
  36. dysphagia
    Difficulty in swallowing
  37. ecchymosis
    bruise (black and blue)
  38. echolalia
    The immediate and involuntary repetition of words or phrases just spoken by others, often a symptom of autism or some types of schizophrenia
  39. edema
    An excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue spaces or a body cavity
  40. epitrochlear
    A projection on the outer side of the distal end of the humerus; the external condyle
  41. euphoria
    A feeling of great happiness or well-being
  42. Faces Pain Scale
    pain rating scale for pain severity using Wong-Baker faces
  43. fatigue
    The decreased capacity or complete inability of an organism, an organ, or a part to function normally because of excessive stimulation or prolonged exertion
  44. flight of ideas
    an almost continuous flow of accelerated speech in which a person changes abruply from topic to topic. Changes are usually based on understandable associations, plays on words or distracting stimuli but the ideas do not progress to sensible converstaion
  45. friability
    Readily crumbled; brittle
  46. GERD
    gastroesophageal reflux disease
  47. hallucinations
    Perception of visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory experiences without an external stimulus and with a compelling sense of their reality, usually resulting from a mental disorder or as a response to a drug
  48. hematoma
    A localized swelling filled with blood resulting from a break in a blood vessel.
  49. hirsutism
    excess hair growth
  50. hyperpyrexia
    an extremely elevated temperature that sometimes occurs in acute infectious diseases, especially in young children
  51. hypothermia
    Abnormally low body temperature
  52. idiopathic
    unknown (without recognizable cause), pain without identifiable etiology
  53. illusions
    misinterpretation of real external stimuli
  54. induration
    The hardening of a normally soft tissue or organ, especially the skin, because of inflammation, infiltration of a neoplasm, or an accumulation of blood
  55. insight
    the capacity for understanding one's own or another's mental processes
  56. jaundice
    yellowing of skin and eyes
  57. judgment
    The capacity to assess situations or circumstances and draw sound conclusions; good sense
  58. Korotkoff sounds
    Blood sounds during assessment of blood pressure. Low in pitch - generally better heard with bell of stethoscope
  59. level of consciousness
    awake, alert, responsive to others in the environment
  60. melancholy
    Affected with or marked by depression of the spirits
  61. neologisms
    The invention of new words regarded as a symptom of certain psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia.
  62. nevus
    mole, moles (NEE-vus, NEE-vi)
  63. night sweats
    • occurrence of excessive sweating during sleep, (sleep hyperhidrosis)
    • Hormonal changes
    • GERD
    • Sleep disorders
    • Medications
    • Infection
    • Malignancy
  64. nocioceptive
    tissue damage to skin, musculoskeletal system or viscera, but sensory nervous system is intact
  65. obsessions
    fixation
  66. orientation
    awareness of one's environment with reference to time, place, and people.
  67. orthostatic hypotension
    abnormal decrease in blood pressure when person stands up - can lead to syncope
  68. pallor
    paleness, as of the skin
  69. palpable
    Perceptible to touch
  70. perceptions
    thought processes, thought content, perceptions, insight & judgement
  71. perseveration
    The tendency to continue or repeat an act or activity after the cessation of the original stimulus
  72. phobias
    intense but unrealistic fear that can interfere with the ability to socialize, work, or go about everyday life, brought on by an object, event or situation
  73. psychomotor slowing
    relating to movement or muscular activity associated with mental processes, especially affects, associated with depression
  74. ritualistic behavior
    part of obsessive-complusive disorder
  75. rubor
    redness of complextion
  76. sclerosis
    an induration or hardening, especially from inflammation and in diseases of the interstitial substance; applied chiefly to such hardening of the nervous system or to hardening of the blood vessels
  77. senile lentigines
    liver spot (macule - small, flat spot up to 1.0 cm)
  78. signs of distress
    does patient show evidence of cardiac/respiratory distress, pain, anxiety/depression
  79. splinter hemorrhages
    linear hemorrhages beneath the nail
  80. synchronous
    Occurring or existing at the same time
  81. systolic
    phase of blood circulation in which the heart's pumping chambers (ventricles) are actively pumping blood
  82. tachycardia
    heart rate >100 bpm
  83. tolerance
    decreased susceptibility to the effects of a drug due to its continued administration
  84. weakness
    a condition of being feeble, fragile, frail, or decrepit or lacking physical strength, energy, or vigor
  85. active listening
    process of closely attending to what the patient is communicating, being aware of the patient's emotional state, using verbal and non-verbal skills to encourage the speaker to continue and expand upon important concerns
  86. echoing
    simple repetition of the patient's last words, encourages the patient to expand on factual details and feelings
  87. empathy
    the capacity of the clinician to identify with the patient and feel the patient's pain as the clinician's own.
  88. empowering the patient
    Sharing power with the patient over their medical care by: evoking patient's perspective, conveying interest in the person not just the problem, following the patient's lead, elicit and validate emotional content, share information with the patient (especially at transition points during visit), make clinical reasoning transparent to patient, reveal the limits of your knowledge
  89. focused questions
    questions aimed to elicit more focused responses
  90. guided questioning
    shows sustained interest in the patient's feelings and deepest disclosures - moving from open-ended to focused questions, using questions to elicit graded response, series of questions, multiple choices for answers, clarifying what the patient means, encouraging with continuers, using echoing
  91. neutral utterances
    "hmmm", "mm-hm", "go on", encourages the patinet to say more
  92. OLD CARTS
    Onset, Location, Duration, Character, Aggravating/Alleviating Factors, Radiation, Timing
  93. open-ended questions
    general questions, can elicit a number of responses, allow full freedom of response
  94. OPQRST
    Onset, Palliating/Provoking Factors, Quality, Radiation, Site, Timing
  95. paraphrase
    provider indicates understanding of patient's story and encourages the patient to express deeper feelings
  96. partnering
    when building relationships with your patients, be explicit about your commitment to an ongoing partnership - make the patient feel that regardless of what happens with their illness, you envision continuing their care
  97. patient centered
    encourages patient to express what is most important to them, personal concerns in addition to symptoms
  98. reassurance
    identifying and acknowledging the patient's feelings, later after examination/lab studies interpret for patient what you think is happening and deal openly with expressed concerns.  Reassurance comes from making the patient feel confident that problems have been fully understood and are being addressed.
  99. self-disclosure
    self-disclosure-part of relationship building skills-and indirect inquiry-"I had a similar experience, it made me feel...."
  100. summarization
    giving a capsule summary of the patient's story during the course of the interview serves to show you have been listening carefully, identifies what you know and don't know, let's the patient add any other information or correct any misunderstandings
  101. transitions
    Patients may be apprehensive during a health care visit, to put them more at ease, tell them when you are changing directions during the interview.  Moving from one part of the history to the next, or moving to the physical examination. "Now I would like to examine you, I'll step out while you change into a gown."
  102. validation
    to affirm the patient by acknowledging the legitimacy of his/her emotional experience
  103. alopecia
    hair loss
  104. telogen effluvium
    disruption of the normal hair growth cycle resulting in sudden hair loss (attributed to medical or psychological causes)
  105. androgenic alopecia
    male-pattern baldness
  106. trichotillomania
    a compulsive urge to pull out one’s own hair
  107. neoplastic
    abnormal new growth of tissue
  108. Character of lesion
    color, primary/secondary, lesions all same or variable, exudate
  109. Shape of lesion
    round, oval, annular (ring-shaped), iris (target-shaped), serpiginous (snake-like)
  110. Distribution of lesion
    localized, generalized, symmetrical, acral (hands and feet), light-exposed areas, intertriginous (skin folds), clustered, dermatomal
  111. questions for nevi (moles)
    painful, itching/burning, oozing/bleeding, scaly/crusty, suddenly different in size, shape, color or elevation
  112. layers of skin
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • subcutaneous tissue
  113. epidermis
    most superficial layer of skin
  114. dermis
    contains the blood supple for the skin, connective tissue, glands, and hair follicles
  115. subcutaneous tissue
    • sub = under, cutaneous = skin
    • where adipose tissue is found
  116. appendages of skin
    hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands
  117. nail bed
    tissue under the nail
  118. nail plate
    fingernail
  119. cuticle
    seals the space between the nail fold and plate
  120. sebaceous glands
    • present in all surfaces except palms/soles;
    • produce a fatty substance secreted onto skin surface through hair follicles
  121. types of sweat glands
    • eccrine
    • apocrine
  122. eccrine gland
    widely distributed, open directly onto skin surface, help control body temperature
  123. apocrine gland
    found in axilla and groin, stimulated by emotional stress
  124. skin turgor
    measure of the elasticity of the skin, reflecting the pt's state of hydration (can also change with age)
  125. basal cell carcinoma
    • 80% of skin cancers
    • shiny and translucent
    • grow slowly and rarely metastasize
  126. squamous cell carcinoma
    • 16% of skin cancers
    • crusted, scaly, and ulcerated
    • can metastasize
  127. melanoma
    • 4% of skin cancers
    • spread rapidly
  128. ABCDE Screening
    • A:asymmetry
    • B:borders (ragged, notched, blurred
    • C:color (variation, change, blue/black)
    • D:diameter (>=6mm)
    • E:elevation/enlargement
  129. does a rash blanch
    does it turn white when pressed on
  130. skin inspection and palpation for:
    • color
    • moisture
    • temperature
    • texture
    • turgor
    • lesions
  131. hyperpigmentation
    extra pigmentation (e.g. melasma)
  132. hypopigmentation
    lack of pigmentation (e.g. vitiligo)
  133. erythema
    red hue, increased blood flow, used to describe rashes/lesions
  134. petechiae
    tiny dots of color
  135. circumoral
    around mouth
  136. verrucous
    warty
  137. CAGE
    • felt the need to CUT down on your drinking
    • felt ANNOYED by criticism about your drinking
    • had GUILTY feelings about your drinking
    • taken a morning EYE opener

    (each is a point, 2 or more suggests pt has alcohol or drug problem)
  138. mental health symptoms
    • anxiety
    • confusion
    • depression
    • memory loss
  139. co-morbid
    existing at the same time
  140. somatic
    physical symptoms caused by mental illness
  141. anhedonia
    • unable to find interest in any activities
    • (eating, working, etc)
  142. delirium
    acute confusional state, comes on quickly
  143. dementia
    chronic condition, progressive loss of cognitive function, starts slowly, gradually gets worse
  144. Alzheimer's
    specific type of dementia, memory loss
  145. memory loss screening tools
    • MMSE
    • Mini-cog
    • Clock drawing test
  146. cognitive function
    an intellectual process by which one becomes aware of, perceives, or comprehends ideas.  Involves all aspects of perception, thinking, reasoning, and remembering, orientation, attention, remote & recent memory, new learning ability
  147. medically unexplained symptoms
    symptoms that tend to be persistent or recurrent and for which no explanation can be found
  148. functional syndromes
    actual medical conditions characterized by multiple symptoms that cannot be validated by PE or diagnostic testing (IBS, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome)
  149. overlap symptoms
    symptoms seen in several of the functional syndromes (fatigue, sleep disturbance, muslculoskeletal pain, head ache, GI symptoms
  150. difficult patient
    one with unexplained and somatoform symptoms who becomes a frequent user of health care systems
  151. personality disorders
    • characterized by dysfunctional interpersonal coping styles that disrupt and destabilize relationships, including those with health care providers
    • (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, obessive-compulsive)
  152. somatoform disorders
    • group of psychiatric disorders that cause unexplained physical symptoms:
    • somatization disorder {multisystem physical symptoms}
    • conversion disorder {voluntary motor or sensory function symptoms}
    • pain disorder {pain with strong psychological involvement}
    • hypochondriasis {fear of having a life-threatening illness/condition}
    • body dysmorphic disorder {leads to anorexia/bulimia}
  153. anxiety disorders
    panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder
  154. mood disorders
    • major depression, bipolar disorder, dysthymic disorder, cyclothymic disorder
    • (AKA: affective disorders)
  155. psychotic disorders
    • delusions: false beliefs, someone plotting against you
    • hallucinations: false perceptions, hearing, seeing or feeling something that is not there
    • (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, substance-induced psychotic disorder)
  156. mental status exam
    • appearance and behavior
    • speech and language
    • mood
    • thoughts and perception
    • cognitive functions
  157. appearance and behavior
    • level of consciousness
    • posture and motor behavior
    • dress, grooming, personal hygiene
    • facial expression
    • manner, affect, relationship to people and things
  158. speech and language
    quantity, rate, volume, articulation of words, fluency
  159. thoughts and perceptions
    thought processes, thought content, perceptions, insight & judgement
  160. MSE
    Mental Status Examination: Assessment of a pt's level of cognitive ability, appearance, emotional mood, and speech and thought patterns.  Includes full neuro exam as well as observations of pt's attitude and cooperativeness and pt's answers to specific questions
  161. MMSE
    Mini-Mental Status Exam: commonly used test of cognitive functioning only, most commonly used in the assessment of dementia
  162. TMJ
    temporal mandibular joint pain
  163. lymphadenopathy
    swollen glands
  164. headache
    • primary: migraine, tension, cluster, chronic daily HA
    • secondary: underlying pathology - structural, systemic or infectious - may be life-threatening
  165. Valsalva maneuver
    bearing down to move bowels
  166. headache warning signs
    progressively frequent or severe over 3 month period, sudden onset, new onset after 50yo, HA precipitated by Valsalva maneuver, assoc. symptoms of (fever, night sweats, weight loss), cocomitant cancer, HIV infection, assoc. eye symptoms or papilledema, neck stiffness or focal neurologic deficits
  167. papilledema
    optic disk swelling
  168. Sacred Seven
    • Location
    • Quality
    • Severity
    • Timing/Onset
    • Setting
    • Aggrevate
    • Alleviate
    • Associated symptoms
  169. ROS
    review of systems
  170. sequelae
    problems, issues or conditions directly related to incident (head trauma leading to weakness, seizures etc)
  171. normocephalic
    head and all major organs of the head are in a normal condition and without significant abnormalities
  172. acromegaly
    Increased GH, bony prominences (brow, jaw), enlarged nose, lips, ears, hands
  173. Cushing's syndrome
    "moon face" and red cheeks due to increased adrenal hormone, possible hirsutism
  174. myxedema
    severe hypothyroidism - puffy face, hair and eyebrows are dry, coarse, thinned, dry skin, parotitis
  175. parotitis
    • swelling above angle(s) of jaw
    • (also seen in mumps)
  176. tangential lighting
    pen light shined from side to observe shadow/outline of structures
  177. bruit
    audible turbulant blood flow on auscultation (brew-EE)
  178. hyperthyroidism
    over-production of thyroid hormone
  179. pathognomonic
    • specifically distinctive or characteristic of a disease or pathologic condition
    • (exophthalmos indicates hyperthyroidsm)
  180. exophthalmos
    bulging eyes (most likely from hyperthyroidism) 
  181. NC/AT
    head/skull is normocephalic/atraumatic
  182. ascites
    excess fluid in the space between the tissues lining the abdomen and abdominal organs (the peritoneal cavity)
  183. BMI
    body mass index

  184. obesity
    chronic disorder of excessive weight characterized by excessive body fat and high health risk (BMI >= 30 kg/m2)
  185. overweight
    weight above the established normal range but below the criteria for obesity (BMI between 25 and 29.9)
  186. etiology
    cause or origin of symptoms
  187. arrhythmias
    irregular rhythm - can produce variations in pressure
  188. masked hypertension
    office blood pressure is normal but ambulatory pressure is high - increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  189. white coat hypertension
    office blood pressure is high but ambulatory pressures are normal - cardiovascular risk is low
  190. activities of daily living
    activities normally performed over the course of a normal day (personal grooming, dressing, work, eating, leisure activities)
  191. acute pain
    unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with tissue damage
  192. analgesia
    absence of sensibility to pain
  193. neuropathic
    direct consequences of a lesion or disease affecting somatosensory systems
  194. numeric rating scale
    scale for rating pain (0-10)
  195. opioid
    synthetic narcotic that has opiate-like activities but not derived from opium
  196. pain management
    pharmacological/nonpharmacological approaches to reduce/stop pain
  197. psychogenic
    factors that influence a patient's report of pain (anxiety, depression, personality, coping style, cultural norms, social support systems)
  198. physical dependence
    substance dependence where there is evidence of tolerance/withdrawal
  199. macule
    • small, flat spot up to 1.0 cm
    • (hemangioma, vitiligo)
    • Primary lesion
  200. patch
    • flat spot, 1.0 cm or larger
    • (café-au-lait spot)
    • Primary lesion
  201. plaques
    • elevated lesion 1.0 cm or larger, often formed by coalescence of papules
    • Primary lesion
  202. papule
    • up to 1.0 cm
    • (psoriasis)
    • Primary lesion
  203. nodule
    • knot like lesion larger than 0.5 cm, deeper and firmer than a papule 
    • (dermatofibroma)
    • Primary lesion
  204. cyst
    • nodule filled with expressible material, either liquid or semisolid
    • (epidermal inclusion cyst)
    • Primary lesion
  205. wheal
    • somewhat irregular, relatively transient, superficial area of localized skin edema
    • (uticaria)
    • Primary lesion
  206. vesicle
    • up to 1.0 cm; filled with serous fluid
    • (herpes simplex herpes zoster)
    • Primary lesion
  207. bulla
    • pl-bullae
    • 1.0 cm or larger, filled with serous fluid
    • (insect bite)
    • Primary lesion
  208. pustule
    • filled with pus (yellow proteinacceous fluid filled with neutrophils)
    • (acne, small pox)
    • Primary lesion
  209. burrow
    • minute, slightly raised tunnel in the epidermis, commonly found on the finger webs and on the sides of the fingers.  Looks like short (5-15 mm), linear or curved gray line and may end in a tiny vesticle.
    • (scabies)
    • Primary lesion
  210. scale
    • thin flake of dead exfoliated epidermis
    • (ichthyosis vulgaris, dry skin)
    • Secondary lesion
  211. crust
    • dried residue of skin exudates such as serum, pus, or blood
    • (impetigo)
    • Secondary lesion
  212. lichenification
    • visible and palpable thickening of the epidermis and roughening of the skin with increased visibility of the normal skin furrows (often from chronic rubbing)
    • (neurodermatitis)
    • Secondary lesion
  213. scars
    • increased connective tissue that arises from injury or disease
    • (hypertrophic scar from steroid injections)
    • Secondary lesion
  214. keloids
    • hypertrophic scarring that extends beyond the borders of the initiating injury
    • Secondary lesion
  215. erosion
    • nonscarring loss of the superficial epidermis; surface is moist but does not bleed
    • (aphthous stomatitis, moist area after the rupture of a vesicle, as in chickenpox)
    • Secondary lesion
  216. excoriation
    • linear or punctate erosions caused by scratching
    • (cat scratches)
    • Secondary lesion
  217. fissure
    • linear crack in the skin, often resulting from dryness
    • (athlete's foot)
    • Secondary lesion
  218. ulcer
    • a deeper loss of epidermis and dermis; may bleed and scar
    • (stasus ulcer of venous insufficiency, syphilitic chancre)
    • Secondary lesion
  219. subclavian steal
    • Obstruction of the subclavian artery proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery. Blood flow through the vertebral artery is reversed, causing symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency.
    • Steal -  diversion, as of blood flow, of something from its normal course, as in occlusive arterial disease
  220. minimal facilitators
    Non-directive questions that allow the patient to elaborate on the most important symptoms. This open-ended dialogue includes skills that don’t actually involve questions
  221. non-focusing skills
    • encourage the patient to talk with:
    • Silence – saying nothing while continuing to be attentive
    • Nonverbal encouragement – urges the patient to talk (hand motion, facial expression, or body language such as leaning forward)
    • Neutral utterances and continuers also known as minimal facilitators) – brief noncommittal statements (“Oh”, “Uh-huh”, “Mmm”)
  222. nonverbal communications
    • The process of transmitting information without the use of words
    • (Eye contact, facial expression, posture, head position, and movement such as shaking or nodding, hand and arm gestures, movement of the legs and feet, personal space, leaning in)
  223. objective
    Objective data is information you learn during the physical exam, as well as any results from immediate diagnostic testing. Objective findings are always observable
  224. questioning skills
    • Open-ended Questions (tell me more about that)
    • Closed-ended Questions (yes/no)
  225. reflection
    (echoing) repeating what the patient has just said, signals that the interviewer has heard what was said, and encourages the patient to elaborate
  226. relationship building skills
    • Emotion-seeking
    • Emotion-building (NURS)
    • Name, Understanding, Respect, Support
  227. name
    • Part of NURS:
    • Name or label the patient’s expressed emotions: “That scares you.”
  228. understanding
    • Part of NURS:
    • Make an Understanding statement: “I can understand how that might upset you.”
  229. respect
    • Part of NURS:
    • Respect the patient by praising them or acknowledging their concerns: “You did the right thing.”
  230. support
    • Part of NURS:
    • Offer Support and partnership: “We’ll get through this together.”
  231. subjective
    • Subjective information is what the patient tells you;
    • Data obtained during the history taking part of the encounter
  232. "wh" questions
    • Where - where exactly is it on your body?
    • What - tell me what it feels like
    • When - when does it start? Does it come and go?
    • How - How is it affected by sleep, food, exertion, etc?
    • Why - Why do you think you have this problem?
    • Who - Who is affected by it? (consequences to patient and other people
  233. JNCVII BP Classification - Normal
    Systolic <120, Diastolic <80
  234. JNCVII BP Classification - Prehypertension
    Systolic 120-139, Diastolic 80-89
  235. JNCVII BP Classification - Stage 1 Hypertension
    Systolic 140-159, Diastolic 90-99
  236. JNCVII BP Classification - Stage 2 Hypertension
    Systolic >=160, Diastolic >=100
  237. JNCVII BP Classification - If Diabetes or Renal Disease
    Systolic <130, Diastolic <80

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