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A systematic overview of studies that pools results of two or more studies toobtain an overall answer to a question or interest. Summarizes quantitativelythe evidence regarding a treatment, procedure, or association.
An article that examines published material on a clearly described subject in a systematic way. There must be a description of how the evidence on this topic was tracked down, from what sources and with what inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
A group of patients is randomized into an experimental group and a control group. These groups are followed up for the variables / outcomes of interest.
Crossover Study Design:
The administration of two or more experimental therapies one after the other in a specified or random order to the same group of patients.
Involves identification of two groups (cohorts) of patients, one which didreceive the exposure of interest, and one which did not, and following thesecohorts forward for the outcome of interest.
A study that involves identifying patients who have the outcome of interest(cases) and patients without the same outcome (controls), and looking back tosee if they had the exposure of interest.
The observation of a defined population at a single point in time or time interval. Exposure and outcome are determined simultaneously.
Describes characteristics of a group of patients with a particular disease orwho have undergone a particular procedure. Design may be prospective orretrospective. No control group is used in the study, although the discussionmay compare the results to other published outcomes.
Similar to the Case Series, except that only one or a small group of cases isreported.
Controlled Laboratory Study
An in vitro or in vivo investigation in which one group receiving an experimental treatment is compared to one or more groups receiving no treatment or an alternate treatment.
An in vivo or in vitro study that describescharacteristics such as anatomy, physiology, or kinesiology of a broad range ofsubjects or a specific group of interest. Authors should choose the design thatbest fits the study.
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