biology ch 3

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agerdts
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195773
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biology ch 3
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2013-02-05 20:18:31
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biol
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things to know
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  1. Hydrogenated vegetable oil
    trans fat
  2. complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins  and nucleic acids. they are organic
    the molecules of life
  3. Describes a compound that consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
    organic
  4. a very large protein that colors your blood red. it also transfers oxygen to tissue throughout the body.
    hemoglobin
  5. molecules that are subunits of polymers. (Simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides.)
    monomers
  6. molecules that consist of multiple monomers.
    polymer
  7. process of molecular change.
    reaction
  8. All the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acpuire and use energy as they build and break down organic molecules.
    metabolism
  9. Compound (usually a protein) that speeds up a reaction without being changed by it.
    enzyme
  10. Process by which enzymes build large molecules from smaller subunits; water also forms.
    condensation
  11. Process by witch an enzyme breakes a molecule into smaller subunits by attaching a hydroxyl group to one part and a hydrogen atom to the other.
    hydrolysis
  12. Compound that consists only of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
    Hydrocarbon
  13. A group of atoms bonded to a carbon of an organic compound; imparts a specific chemical property to the molecule.
    Functional group
  14. Are organic compounds that consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
    Carbohydrates
  15. Simple sugar; monomer of polysaccharides. (the simplest form of carbohydrates.) and(are very soluble in water)
    Monosaccharide
  16. Polymer of two sugar subunits.(ex. lactose in milk, sucrose from sugar)
    disaccharide
  17. Polymer of many monosaccharides.(Complex carbohydrate): (cellulose, glycogen, and starch)
    Polysaccharide
  18. Polysaccharide; major structural martial in plants.
    Cellulose
  19. Polysaccharide; energy reservoir in plant cells.
    Starch
  20. Polysaccharide; energy reservoir in anilmal cells.
    Glycogen
  21. Fatty, oily,or waxy organic compound.(Hydrophobic)
    Lipis
  22. Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end. Carbon chain of saturated types has single bonds only; that of unsaturated types has one or more double bonds.
    Fatty acid
  23. Fatty acids that contain no carbon-carbon double bonds.
    Saturated fatty acids
  24. Fatty acid that has one or more carbon-carbon double bonds in its tail.
    unsaturated fatty acid
  25. Lipid that consists of a glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acid tails.
    Fat
  26. A fat with three fatty acid tails.(hydrophobic.)
    Triglyceride 
  27. A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acidstails; main constituent of eukaryotic cell membranes.
    Phospholipid
  28. Double layer of lipids arranged tail-to-tail; structural foundation of all cell membranes.
    Lipid bilayer
  29. Water-repellent mixture of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to long-chain alcohols of carbon rings.
    Wax
  30. Type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails.
    Steroid
  31. Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids(polypeptides).
    Protein
  32. Small organic compound that is, a subunit of proreins. Consists of carboxyl group  an amine group, and a characteristic side group(R), all typically bonded to the same carbon atom.
    Amino acid
  33. A bond between the amine group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another. Joins amino acids in proteins.
    Peptide bond
  34. Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
    Polypeptide
  35. To unravel the shape of a biological molecule.
    Denature
  36. Infectious Protein
    Prion
  37. Monomer of nucleic acids; has five-carbon sugar, o nitrogen-containing base,and phosphate groups.
    Nucleotide
  38. Adenosine triphosphate. nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups.
    ATP
  39. Single- or double-stranded chain of nucleotides joined by sugar-phosphate bonds; for ex. DNA, RNA
    nucleic acid
  40. Ribonucleic acid. Some types have roles in protein synthesis.
    RNA
  41. Doexyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information about traits; consists of two nucleotide chains twisted in a double helix.
    DNA
  42. What are the Molecules of life?
    Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon.
  43. What is the definition of an organic molecule? 
    A Molecule that is composed of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms.
  44. What are the 5 types of structural modles?
    • A structural formula(it shows a molecules structure)
    • A ball-and-stick model(shows the structure of a molecule in 3-D)
    • A space-filling model(shows a molecules overall shape)
    • A surface model(Shows crevices ans folds that are important for the molecules function.)
    • A ribbon model(Shows the Heme groups intertwined in the ribbons)
  45. What is the method that cells use to produce energy from these basic molecules of life?
    The method of Metabolism.
  46. What type of groups give organic molecules their unique chemical character? 
    Functional groups
  47. Be able to give an example of at least one group and the chemical character it contributes.
    • Hydroxyl group: they add polar character to organic compounds.
    • Methyl group: add nonpolar character.
    • Acetyl groups: carry two carbons from one molecule to another in many metbolic reactions. also when added to DNA it acts like an on switch.
    • Algehyde and Ketone: part of simple sugars.
  48. What structure dictates function? 
    the Cyclic structure
  49. What is an example of a carbohydrate monomer?
     a Polysaccharide 
  50. What are the terms used to describe the hiarky of carbohydrates? 
    Saccharide: which is a greek word for sugar. it then has Mono, Di, or Poly in front of it to change the meaning
  51. What are the Functions of carbohydrates?
    they are used for energy and structural materials.
  52. What is a lipid? 
    it is a fatty, oily, or waxy organic compound.
  53. what are properties of a lipid?
    they are Hydrophobic
  54. What is the main component of a eukaryotic cell membrane?
    a lipid bilayer that is made up of two layers of Phospholipids.
  55. What are 2 examples of a lipid?
    Fats, Phospholipids, waxes, and steroids. 
  56. Describe primary, secondary, tretiary, and quaternary protein structure's.
    • Primary Structure: consists of a linear sequence(polypeptide chain) of amino acids.
    • Secondary structure: Starts as a polypeptide chain and twists in to a coil(helix) held in place by hydrogen bonds between different parts of the molecule.
    • Tertiary structure: occurs when a chain's coils and sheets fold up into a functional domane like a pocket or barrel.
    • Quaternary Structure: where two or more Polypeptide chains associate as one molecule.
  57. What are the two possible secondary structures?
    a coil (helix) or a sheet.
  58. What determines a proteins function?
    its shape
  59. What conditions can affect protein structure?
    Hydrogen bonds and interaction with heat.
  60. Name 2 examples of nucleotide polemers and their rolls in biological structures?
    • DNA: it consists of 2 nucleotide chains twisted into a double helix
    • RNA: plays a roll in protein synthesis.

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