Psychology Terms

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Author:
madrat
ID:
195780
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Psychology Terms
Updated:
2013-01-28 21:04:24
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psychology
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Description:
Psychology terms to know concentrating on the brain, neural and hormonal systems and perception
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  1. What is an agonist?
    An Agonist mimics a neurotransmitter and causes similar effects
  2. What is an antagonist?
    An Antagonist blocks the receptor cite of a neuron, preventing the detection of a neurotransmitter
  3. What does Acetylcholine (ACh) do?
    ACh is involved in muscle action, learning and memory
  4. What does Serotonin do?
    • Serotonin is involved in mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
    • Low levels are linked to depression
    • Serotonin pathways in the brain
  5. What is Dopamine involved in?
    • Dopamine is involved in movement, learning, attention, and emotion
    • Pleasure
    • Excess can lead to hallucinations
    • Linked to Schizophrenia
  6. What does Norepinephrine do? Where does the hormone come from?
    • Norepinaphrine helps control alertness arousal
    • Fight or Flight response
    • Hormone comes adrenal glands
  7. What does GABA stand for? What does it do?
    • Gamma-aminobutyric acid
    • A major inhibitory neurotransmitter
  8. What is Glutamate involved in?
    • Excitatory neurotransmitter
    • Involved in memory
  9. Name the parts of a neuron in order.
    Dendrites, Cell Body, Axon and Myelin Sheeth, Axon Terminals
  10. Name the main regions of the brain from newest to oldest.
    Cortex, Limbic System, Brain Stem
  11. What is the function of dendrites?
    Dendrites detect neurotransmitters and initiate the action potential
  12. What happens at the Axon Terminal?
    The action potential has traveled all the way down the axon and a neurotransmitter is secreted into the synapse
  13. What happens during depolarization?
    • Positive ions enter the neuron
    • The neuron is more likely to fire an action potential
  14. What happens during polarization?
    • Negative ions enter the neuron
    • The neuron is less likely to fire and action potential
  15. What makes up the Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Brain and Spinal Chord
    • Interneurons 
  16. What kinds of neurons make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)? What do these neurons do?
    • Sensory Neurons: carry sensory information to the brain
    • Motor Neurons: carry instructions to muscles and glands
  17. WTF do Glial Cells do?
    Glial cells provide nutrition to neurons and make up the Myelin sheeth
  18. Discus the Somatic and Autonomic divisions of the PNS.
    • Somatic: Controls skeletal muscles; uses thought
    • Autonomic: Controls glands and automatic processes (e.g. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic)
  19. How do the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems differ?
    • Sympathetic: arousal (fight or flight response)
    • Parasympathetic: calming
  20. What are reflexes?
    Reflexes happen when sensory neurons detect a harmful stimulus and the spinal chord intersects the signal and directs motor neurons to take action.
  21. What is the Endocrine System?
    • Hormonal communication system of the body
    • slow
  22. What is the Nervous System (NS)?
    • Electrochemical communication system of the body
    • Fast
  23. Describe the Pituitary Gland
    • The Pituitary is called the "Master Gland". It directs other glands
    • Located in the Brain
  24. What does the Thyroid Gland do?
    Regulates metabolism
  25. Discus Adrenal Glands
    • Secretes Epinephrin and Norepinephrin
    • On pancreas
    • Regulate salt and carbohydrate metabolism during stress.
  26. Describe Gonads in makes and females.
    • Secrete sex hormones
    • Regulate growth and developement
    • Male: testes. Secret testosterone
    • Female: ovaries. Secrete estrogen
  27. What does an EEG tell us?
    • Measures brain waves on the cortex
    • Function
  28. What does a PET Scan show?
    • How radioactive glucose is being used by the brain
    • Function
  29. How is an MRI Scan used?
    Shows the structure of the brain a magnetic field
  30. What does the Medulla control? Where is it?
    • Heartbeat and breathing
    • base of Brain Stem
  31. What is the Reticular Formation responsible for? What does it look like?
    • Controls arousal
    • Damage = coma and death
    • Nerve network in brain stem
  32. What does the Thalamus do? Where is it?
    • Directs messages to the correct regions of the brain
    • Sits on top of brain stem
  33. What does the Cerebellum do?
    • "Little Brain" located at the base of the brain
    • Coordination and Balance
  34. What id the Amygdala responsible for?
    • In Limbic system
    • Amplify anger and fear
  35. What does the Hypothalamus do?
    • Located under the Thalamus in the Limbic system
    • Eating, drinking, body temperature, and emotion
    • Helps govern the Endocrine System
  36. Name the four lobes of the cortex, where they are, and what they do.
    • Frontal (forehead) Thinking and Reasoning
    • Parietal (crown) Sensory
    • Temporal (side) Hearing
    • Occipital (back) Vision
  37. Where is the motor cortex?
    The black of the frontal lobe
  38. Where is the sensory cortex?
    The front of the parietal lobe
  39. Discus Brocca's Area and Brocca's Aphasia.
    • Brocca's area is in the left frontal lobe and allows us to use muscles to speak.
    • Aphasia: broken speech or unable to talk
  40. Discus Wernicke's Area and Wernicke's Aphasia.
    • Wernicke's Area is located in the left parietal lobe and is responsible for understanding speech.
    • Aphasia: unable to understand language.
  41. What is Plasticity?
    The brain's ability to modify itself
  42. How do the left and right brain differ?
    • Left Brain: Logical thinking. Skills
    • Right Brain: Artistic. Insight.
  43. How does split brain syndrome affect a person?
    When the Corpus Colosum is severed objects seen in the left visual field can be drawn with the left hand. Objects seen in the right visual field can be names out loud.
  44. What is perception?
    • How we experience sensations
    • Selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information into meaningful units 
  45. Describe Selective Attention
    Seeing the same object from different perspectives but only being able to see one perspective at a time
  46. What is Inattantional Blindness?
    • When we fail to see a stimulus that is right in front of us
    • Gorilla in the basketball game
  47. What is Change Blindness?
    • When we fail to notice change
    • Not noticing the person we are now talking to is not the person we were originally talking to
  48. What is a Retinal Disparity?
    • A Binocular Cue
    • Each eye sees a slightly different image, creating a 3D effect
    • "Finger Sausage"
  49. Describe Convergence.
    • Binocular cue
    • The more the eyes come together, the closer we perceive the object to be
  50. How does Relative Size help us perceive distance?
    • Monocular cue
    • An object that takes up more space on the retina is perceived to be closer to us than something that takes up less space, assuming both objects are the same size.
  51. How does Interposition work?
    • Monocular cue
    • Objects that appear to block others are perceived as being closer to us.
  52. Discus Relative Clarity
    • Monocular cue
    • Objects that are hazy appear to be farther away
  53. Explain Texture Gradient.
    • Monocular cue
    • Textures that are finer signal objects that are farther away
  54. What is Relative Height?
    • Monocular cue
    • Objects that are higher in our visual field are perceived as being farther away
  55. What is Relative Motion?
    • Monocular cue
    • Objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing directions to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction.
  56. How does Linear Perspective work?
    • Monocular cue
    • Parallel lines appear to converge into a single point. The more they converge, the farther away they are.
  57. How do Light and Shadow help us perceive depth?
    • Monocular cue
    • Closer objects reflect more light than those farther away.
  58. Explain Motion Perception
    • As objects come closer, they appear to grow larger
    • Motion
  59. What is the Phi Phenomenon?
    When lights flash one after another, they appear to be moving
  60. What is Shape Consistency?
    Even though the object looks as if it is changing shape, we perceive it as being unchanging
  61. How does Size Consistency plat a role in perception?
    We believe that size of an object does not change even though an object appears smaller
  62. Explain the relationship between Size and Distance
    In a 2D picture, an object that is higher up will be perceived as larger even when the objects are the same size
  63. How would an adult who is seeing for the first time perceive a shapes versus distasnce cues?
    • They would be able to utilize distance cues, indicating that distance dues are nature
    • They would have a hard time telling shapes apart, indicating that is nurture
  64. What would happen if you never saw a horizontal line?
    You would have difficulty perceiving horizontal lines
  65. Explain Perceptual Adaptation
    The ability to adapt to changed perception
  66. What is the Human Factor?
    It has to do with designing things so they are easier for people to use.
  67. What are three claims of ESP?
    • Clairvoyance: "seeing" events happen
    • Telepathy: mind to mind communication
    • Precognition: seeing into the futur
  68. What are Schema's?
    Concepts that organize and interpret unfarmiliar information

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