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Define Monotheism and give an example
monotheism is the belief of one god . An example would be Zoroastrianism
Define Polytheism and give an example
religion that believes in more than one god. An example would be Hinduism
Define Animism in Aboriginal Spirituality
the belief that all of nature is alive within the spirit of the Creator and must be respected because it is alive
the belief that everyone one Earth takes care of creation and is responsible for creation. We are caretakers
What is a totem ?
- Totems are protective spirits that take form of plants, animals, or mythological beings
- totems are seen as guides & teachers of strength.
- life long, journey, message, or shadow (a fear your must overcome)
What is the Rite of Passage for Aboriginals and give a brief description of it.
Vision quest is a coming of age ceremony. The seeker is purified, which involves a confession. This occurs in a sweat lodge. The medicine man instructs the youth to go to a place far from camp. The youth prays, fast, and eats while waiting for a "vision". At the end, the seeker hopes to receive a message from a guardian spirit (appears as an animal or other natural form). Shaman interprets the vision. If vision is not seen, they must try again later.
Who are the elders and why are they important ?
they are respected for their old age and wisdom they have acquired through the years. They pass down knowledge to the youth.
What is Oracy
telling stories and lessons as a tradition which are passed on from generation to generation
Describe the Sundance
ceremony that takes place during the summer over a period of 8-16 days. They face the sun and pay homage to the sun's life-giving powers. Acknowledges and respects the sun as the giver of life. Great Plains nation and males who are asked to participate. Participants dance around a cotton-wood pole, or the "tree of the universe" with some embed sharp wooden hooks placed deep in their chest that are connected to leather thongs that trail up the pole. As they dance, they pull on the thongs and rip their flesh for scars that show their faith. They believe that they should offer their bodies as sacrifice so they wont have to suffer disease, war or famine. Prayers are said and vows are made to the Great Spirit.
Describe the Sweatlodge ceremony
Great Plains celebrate this. Cleanses body (physically and spiritually). Under the direction of a shaman, participants make a sauna-like structure called a sweat lodge (dome made of saplings). This is airtight and dark. Heat stones are placed in the centre of the interior and water is sprinkled onto the stones. Participants crowd &the heat & steam causes perspiration (cleansing them). Prayers and sacred pipe are shared. Shaman/elder co-ordinates the ceremony.
Describe the Morning Dance "Wabeno"
Occurs every spring in the morning. Ojibwa of southern Ontario (children, elderly, and adults.) They dance & pay homage to the Tree of the Universe (nature). Participants fast and cleanse themselves beforehand. Male elder plays a drum and leads dance in a clearing around the selected tree. Everyone dances from dawn to noon and touches the tree as they pass. Ends with a midday feast of fish & meat.
Describe the Shaking Tent ceremony
Occurs during night. Reinforces the belief & values of some Aboriginals about the supernatural world & it's close relationship with the living. *done to communicate with the spirits. *tent is cylindrical shaped (top opened to the sky) *person makes trade with shaman& shaman enters the tent & intercedes with the spirits *shaman asks for advice, help, communication with an ancestor, or help locating a missing person *ends with a message received, if not, it's done again.
Describe the Potlach Ceremony
*done to celebrate an important event like naming of an heir, marriage, or to atone for a humiliation *northwest Pacific Coast nations *feasting, distributing wealth &sharing songs &dancing is all apart of Potlach *the more wealth the host gives away, the more that person gains in status &greatness.
Describe the Smudging Ceremony
the act of burning sweet grass, tobacco, and sage into a smudge pot and ritually drawing the smoke over one's body as an act of cleansing; clearing one's thoughts, wash away impurities to help bring focus onto a task and help them bond with fellow co-smudgers.
Where did Zoroastrianism begin ?
Who are the good and bad supreme beings in Zoroastrianism
Ahura Mazda (good dude) Angra Mainyu (bad cookie)
What is the Initiation Ritual in Zoroastrianism ?
Navjote. The community celebration of the entrance of a child into the world of Zoroastrianism. At the child's house, a priest says prayers and offerings *take a ritual bath (nahn) *a hall is rented *mother circles the child with a coconut and egg seven times& then breaking them * symbolic meeting between the inner and outer world that navjote is initiating *priest gives child sudreh (sacred undergarment to wear daily) kusti (woollen string made of seventy-two strings of lambswool).
What is the Death Ritual for Zoroastrianism ?
- *family is given three day mourning period *body is taken to dakhma (round, open aired structures located in high, rocky areas far from population *vultures eat remains *once its bones, priest sweeps them into the well in the centre of dakhma.
- In canada, most just have funerals, burials or cremation (ashes are scattered on grounds maintained by Zoroastrian community)
- They are dressed in their sudreh * untye and retye their kusti
Where did Jainism begin ? Who is the founder ?
India and Vardhamana Mahavira
How did Jainism founder die ?
At age 72, Mahavira fasted/starved to death to achieve liberation
Who are the Digambaras ?
the sky clad/unclothed religious group that practice monastic nudity
Who are the Svetembaras
the white clad that doesn't practice monastic nudity and wears a few articles of clothing
What is Atomism ?
shows how the elements of earth, water, air, and fire are composed of atoms which poses a soul.
What is Ahimsa ?
- not harming any living being or earth in any way. (mentally or emotionally)
- non violence
What is Karma ? How does this affect Reincarnation ?
- means for every action, there is a consequence. (thoughts & actions)
- they can build bad/good karma
- karma does not go away& remains with the soul but good karma can balance it out& lead to liberation/ moksha. Good karma=good reincarnation, Bad=bad reincarnation.
Where did Taoism begin ?
- changing the chi within a home by the use of colour, different elements (metal, water, fire, etc)
- based on direction of the room-determines colour, shapes, and elements.
What is Tai Chi ?
- form of martial arts, physical activity to increase muscle tone, blood circulation and improve nervous system.
- better flow of chi due to activity.
What is Acupuncture ?
- using the pressure points in the human body to improve chi flow.
- usually use thin needles to activate pressure points
- blockage of chi causes illness
What does "Tao" and "Chi" mean?
- Tao means "the way" (of nature& how to achieve balance)
- Chi is the energy that flows through everything
Who founded Confucianism ?
Confucius/ Kung Fu Tzu
Where did Confucianism begin ?
What are the Five Virtues ?
- goodwill, sympathing towards other,
- politeness & generousity/diligence& perserverence
- Yirightness& respect their duty as guardians of nature+humanity
- Liart of right conduct
- expressed by demonstrating jen, yi, and li
Where did Shinto begin ?
Who is the god on their flag ?
Amaterasu (the sun goddess)
What is Yutate ?
- purification ritual.
- involves priest dipping branch of sakaki tree (symbolized kami) into a cauldron of hot water.
- waves branch over heads of the people
- says prayer called noritofollowed by ritual dance
- shrine maiden takes wooden bowl, scoops air above the cauldron, inviting kami into bowl & pours into the cauldron.
- people drink the cauldron water (purifies them)
Who are the Kami ?
spirits that exist everywhere
What is the Torii ?
gateway to heaven
Describe the Caste system
- in Hinduism, each community is grouped into four Varna (social castes) and the fifth group called Dalits (untouchables). A caste is determined by karma from previous lives & your family status.
- Its now illegal since 1949
What happens during an arranged marriage in Hinduism ?
- parents make sure the couple is socially, culturally, and financially compatible.
- Father of groom asks for daughters hand in marriage to his son.
- Wedding last for three hours
- Priest is there
- consists of fifteen rituals (which are shortened)
- Couple take seven steps around a sacred fire, groom gives bride a necklace to wear for her whole married life.
- Singing, drumming, dancing.
What is samsara and moksha ?
- samsara is the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation)
- moksha the end of reincarnation/liberation of the soul from the endless cycle of rebirth
What type of diet do Hindus have ? How does this relate to their treatment of cows ?
Hindu believe in ahimsa (non-violence) and are vegetarians. They find the cow sacred. Some herds are considered a symbol of wealth as well.
What are the Paths to Salvation for the Hindus ?
- Yogas- ways or paths.
- Bhakti Yoga the way of worship (specific god)
- Karma Yoga the way of good deeds and actions
- Jnana Yoga the way of wisdom
- Raja Yoga the way of prayer (in general)
What are the traditions around death within Hinduism ?
- A solemn ceremony includes cremation by a fire (oldest son or male member of family lights pyre or clicks button to start cremation)
- family bathes and wears new, traditional clothing by the direction of the priest
- their faces are uncovered
- lights, and flowers are offered to the deceased
- prayers are said and the name of Lord Rama is chanted.
- hymns, and holy songs are sung.
- *Ashes are spread in the Ganges river or holy waters.
Who are the Hindu Trinity and what do they represent ?
- Brahma, Shiva, and VishnuBrahma - creation
- Shiva - destruction & rebirth (Dance of Destruction)
- Vishnu - preserver & protector of the universe
What are the Four Sights of Buddha ?
- Old age/man
- Ascetic man/Monk
What are the Four Noble Truths ?
- to live is to suffer- inevitable for humans
- suffering is caused by selfish wants/needs
- our standards are set too high, we are bound to get disappointed
- to cure suffering is to overcome these needs; we no longer get disappointment
- solution is in the Eightfold- Path
List the symbols of Buddhism
- Images of Buddha
- Lotus Flower
- Eight-spoked Wheel
Describe what Nirvana and Parinirvana are
- Nirvana enlightment while on Earth
- Parinirvana finding englightment & then dying
- arhat - someone who dies & reaches moksha
- bodhisattva - someone who chooses to come back to help others reach moksha (Dalai Lama)
Who is the Dalai Lama ?
- Reincarnation of the previous Dalai Lama.
- is the head of the state and spiritual leader of Tibet
Who is the founder of Judaism ?
What did Moses do for the Jews ?
Moses, with the help of God, bestowed the Ten Plagues of Egypt which ultimately convinced Pharaoh to release the Jewish people from Egypt.
What is the Torah ?
is Jewish holy scripture scroll.
What is the Rite of Passage for the Jews ? When does this take place ?
- Bar mitzvah/Bat mitzvah
- bar mitzvah occurs when a boy turns 13
- in months leading to the bar mitzvah, he studies and prepares for the day.
- Occurs on the first Sabbath day after his 13th birthday
- bat mitzvah occurs when a girl turns 12
- both religious services are followed by a joyful reception.
List the symbols of Judaism. What they represent ? Origins ? Where and when they are used ?
- used in the Temple (original one in Jerusalem)
- origins in Maccabean Revolt
- 7 branches=days of the week
- 8 branch (nights of Hanukkah)
- used in synagogues/temples +homes
- during Hanukkah +Sabbath day
- Kippah (Yarmulke)popular in past 300 years
- means "Be in fear of G-d"
- respect and commitment to God
- worn while studying, worship, or at all times
- Old Testament
- used to call assembly, battle or sacrifice
- reminder of the Tempole being destroyed
- sacrifice of ram instead of Issac (made of lamb bone)
- used now in religious festivals (Rosh Hashanah)
- Star of David linked to "King David's Shield"
- will to survive
- points up to God and down to humanity
- used during the Holocaust,
- now in synagogues, flags, overall symbol of Judaism
- Mezuzahancient symbol of connection to God/10 Commandments
- reminder of God's presence
- 10 Commandments are inside Mezuzah
- hung on the doorpost at home, touched with entering or leaving
- Festival of Lights
- occurs during December/November
- celebrates Jewish victory over Greeks & the lamp burning for 8 days
- Candles (8) are lit everyday starting from the left
- traditional foods are eaten
- eight days of gift-giving
- song are sung
- dreidel (toy)
Describe Rosh Hashanah
- Jewish New Year
- Creation of Adam&Eve/world
- pray in synagogue
- eat apples+honey for a "sweet new year"
- shofar is blown
- Hebrew word for "weeks"
- when God revealed himself to Moses & gave him the Ten Commandments + Torah
- Special candles are lit for the 1st& last night by women
- all nighter done reading Torah and studying the Ten Commandments
- eat dairy
- means "lots"
- Time when Jews didn't end up getting killed
- Esther convinced people to not kill Jews
- Fast for 3 days
- Scripture is said of the event
- Eat&drink happily
- Wooden toys are used to drown out the name of Hamam (bad guy)
- Give charity stuff
Describe Yom Kippur
- Day of Atonement/Repent/Forgiveness
- celebrate forgiveness& repent for their sins
- go to the synagogue (no work)
- pray & fast for 25 hours
- have a giant breakfast afterwards
- wear white (symbolized purity)
- September 7-8 days (fall festival)
- celebrates the Exodus, wandering in the desert
- temporarily live in huts called sukkahs
- 7 days, 7 nights
- Jew must eat in their sukkahs
- roof is made of plants/tree branches
Describe the Passover/Pesach
- During the 10th Plague, Angel of Death "passed over" the Jews homes and killed the first-born.
- Celebrates the exodus, independence of Jews, passed over by 10th plague
- House is cleaned, yeast is removed from homes
- symbolic foods are eaten
- sing& tell story of the Exodus
Who is a Rabbi ?
teachers of the Jewish way of life
What is Kosher ? What food are they allowed to eat ?
- Kosher is the a Hebrew word meaning "fit" or "proper to eat"
- kosher refers to the slaughter or the prep of the food.
- basic rule that all mammals are kosher if they chew their cud (cows are kosher, pigs are not)
- fish/seafood is considered kosher if they have fins and scales
- dairy and meat are not eaten together
When does Sabbath occur for Jews ? Whats occurs on this day ?
- Similar to Sunday, Jews worship in their synagogues and usually don't work
Give a brief description of the Holocaust
- an event that occurred during the Nazi regime in WW II that involved the systematic murder of millions of people. Occurred in Eastern Europe (Germany, France, Poland)
- Jews, Gypsies, the disabled, homosexuals, communists, Poles, Jehovah's Witnesses, Christians
- 6 million Jews lost their lives, 3 million plus in other murder of other people
- Jews were brought to concentration camps where most died from starvation, diseases, and getting gased in the extermination camps.
- In the end, 12 million people died, Nuvemburg Trial happened, & Israel was made for survivors to live
What happens when a Jew dies ?
- funeral occurs within the 24 hours
- no cremation
- shiva is the 7 day mourning period for the family.
- They do not leave the house, and are relieved from everyday chores and work.
- A shiva cande is lit after the funeral in their home to symbolize the soul of the deceased
- mourners then eat a small meal
- and avoid mirrors (some even cover them) to avoid vanity at this time
What 3 religions share the same Patriarch ?
Patriarch Abraham (male leader/founder of a group) of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Write a brief summary of the life of Zoroaster
- conceived by a flash of light
- born to a young virgin
- debated with wise men/sages at young age
- had a revelation at 30, went to the desert and found one god; Ahura Mazda
- later preached teachings to others
Summarize the life of Buddha
- When he was born, he came out of a bush, could walk and talk and lotus flowers bloomed where he walked
- he knew of his previous lives
- He grew up as a prince and his father tried to hide Siddhartha from the problems of the kingdom.
- He left his child and wife because he knew they didn't need him
- went to search for the significance of life and why we die; the Great Truth
- His main idea/ the Great Truth was that you have two extreme routes and you must find the middle path of it.
Describe the life of Abraham
- Around 2000 BCE, 75 year old Abraham received a vision from God (that the time, there was a polytheistic religion) to move to Canaan, a special land to raise a nation and began a covenant with God.
- He and his wife were childless so Abraham had a child with Hagar-Ishmael.
- They were gifted with their son, Issac, by the power of God since Sarah was too old to bare a child
- so Ishmael and Hagar were banished into the desert to fend for themselves