Human Development Exam 1 Ch. 1-3

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servinggod247
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195810
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Human Development Exam 1 Ch. 1-3
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2013-01-29 21:09:57
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human development
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Exam Chapters 1-3
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  1. lifespan development
    the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire life span
  2. cognitive development
    development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person's behavior
  3. physical development
    development involving the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep
  4. social/emotional development
    the way in which individuals' interaction with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life
  5. social construction
    a shared notion of reality
  6. age ranges
  7. age-graded influences
    biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
  8. history-graded influences
    biological environmental influences associated with a particular historical movement
  9. sociocultural-graded influences
    the social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual
  10. non-normative life events
    specific, atypical events that occur in a person's life at a time when such events do not happen to most people
  11. discontinuous change
    development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages
  12. continuous change
    gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels
  13. critical period
    a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli is necessary for development to proceed normally
  14. sensitivity period
    a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences 
  15. nature
    refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from one's parents
  16. nurture
    • refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior
    • (biological pregnant mother addiction to cocaine, amount of food available to child)
  17. maturation
    the predetermined unfolding of genetic info
  18. longitudinal research
    research in which the behavior of one or more participants in a study is measured as they age
  19. Theoretical perspectives (6)
    • psychodynamic 
    • behavioral
    • cognitive
    • humanistic 
    • contextual
    • evolutionary
  20. psychodynamic perspective
    • Sigmund Freud
    • The approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond people's awareness and control
  21. cross-sectional research 
    research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time
  22. sequential research 
    research in which researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time
  23. sperm
    male reproductive cell
  24. zygote
    the new cell formed by the process of fertilization 
  25. gene
    the basic units of genetic information
  26. ovum
    female reproductive cell
  27. gametes
    male and female reproductive cells
  28. monozygotic twins
    twins who are genetically identical 
  29. dizygotic twins
    twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time
  30. spontaneous mutation
    when genes spontaneously change their form
  31. amniocentesis
    • a small sample of fetal cells is drawn by a tiny needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus
    • Identifies a variety of genetic defects with nearly 100% accuracy 
  32. ultrasound sonography 
    high frequency sound waves used on a mothers womb to identify the sex of a child, developmental patterns, and sometimes abnormalities
  33. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
    used in the 10-13th week of pregnancy if blood tests and ultrasound have identified a potential problem or if there is family history of problems. Inserts a thin needle into the fetus and taking small samples of hair-like material that surrounds the embryo. 
  34. genotype
    the underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism
  35. phenotype
    an observable trait; the trait that is actually seen
  36. temperament
    patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual
  37. infertility
    the inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant
  38. teratogen 
    an environmental agent that produces a birth defect
  39. age of viability 
  40. fetal alcohol syndrome
    a disorder caused by the pregnant mother consuming substantial quantities of alcohol during pregnancy, potentially resulting in mental retardation and delayed growth in the child
  41. episiotomy
    an incision sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to a pass
  42. anoxia
    a restriction of oxygen to the baby, lasting a few minutes during the birth process, that can produce brain damage
  43. reflexes
    unlearned organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
  44. lanugo
    fine fuzz covering a newborns body which soon disappears 
  45. vernix
    greasy substance that converse a newborn to smooth the passage through the birth canal 
  46. stillbirth
    the delivery of a child who is not alive, occurring in less than one delivery in 100
  47. miscarraige
  48. states of arousal
    different degrees of sleep and wakefulness through which newborns cycle, ranging from deep sleep to great agitation
  49. Cultural Factors and Developmental Diversity:

    Broad Factors?

    Finer Differences?
    1. Orientation toward individualism and collectivism

    2. Ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, gender
  50. Five personality traits
    • Neuroticism
    • Extroversion
    • Contentiousness
    • Openness 
    • Agreeableness
  51. Stages of fetal development
    • 1. zygote: beginning- 2 weeks
    • 2. Embreyo: 2-8 weeks (3 layers) (major organs)
    • 3. Fetal: 8 weeks- birth (everything develops)
  52. Labor stages
    • 1st- contractions (expands 10 cm)
    • 2nd- pushing (norm = 90 minutes)
    • 3rd- umbilical cord (placenta)
  53. Breech
    feet 1st
  54. Transverse
    head up, face up
  55. Preterm 
    before 38 weeks
  56. Low birth weight
    5 1/2 lbs or less
  57. Polycesticoveriah syndrom
    Number one problem why women can not pass egg; causes infertility 
  58. Senses at birth
    • visual not fully developed
    • sense brightness
    • passes some sense of size
    • distinguish colors
    • hearing capable but acuity not completely mature
    • react to different sounds

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