motivation and emotion test

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  1. motivation
    factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior

    cant be observed, must be inferred

    thought of as intervening variable
  2. 4 Sources of Motivation
    • Biological factors
    • Emotional factors
    • Cognitive factors
    • Social factors
  3. Biological factors:
    need for food, water, sex, temperature regulation
  4. Emotional factors
    panic, fear, anger, love, hatred
  5. Cognitive factors
    perceptions, beliefs, expectations
  6. Social factors
    reactions to others ie: parents, family, co-workers, peers, friends
  7. 5 theories of motivation
    • Instinct
    • Drive Reduction
    • Arousal
    • Incentive
    • Humanistic
  8. Instinct Theory:
    Automatic, unlearned, involuntary behavior triggered by a specific stimulus
  9. Instincts became
    meaningless labels that described behavior without explaining them
  10. Instict Theory:
    Evolutionary approach
    • sucking
    • smiling and other facial expressions
    • mate selection
  11. Drive Reduction Theory:
    organisms must maintain homeostasis

    • when equilibrium is disrupted a "need" is created
    • -that need causes the brain to experience a drive
    •       -that drive causes the organism to take action to restore balance to the system
    • we act to reduce drives and satisfy physiological needs
  12. homeostasis
    tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state

    regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level
  13. Drives:
    • Primary:
    • -Unlearned
    • ---Food
    • ---Water
    • ---Temperature Regulation
    • Secondary:
    • -Learned
    • ---Money
    • ---Shelter
    • ---Job
  14. Arousal Theory:
    • Motivation is tied to the regulation of arousal
    • Performance is best when arousal is moderate
    • Organisms are motivated to behave in ways that maintain their optimal level of arousal
  15. Optimal Arousal
    Rather than reducing a physiological need or tension state, some motivated behaviors increase arousal
  16. Yerkes-Dodson Law
    • There is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task
    • The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates
    • Easy task= needs high arousal
    • Best performance= moderate level of arousal
  17. Incentive Theory
    • Behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli
    • Emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that motivate behavior
    • Two incentive related systems:
    • ---Wanting-being attracted to a stimulus
    • ---Liking- evaluating how pleasurable a stimulus is
  18. Humanistic Theory
    Abraham Maslow suggested that motives are divided into several levels from basic survival needs to psychological and self-fulfillment needs
  19. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied
    • then higher-level safety needs become active
    • then psychological become active
  20. 5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (base up)
    • 1. Physiological needs: need to satisfy hunger and thirst
    • 2. Safety needs: need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe and stable
    • 3. Belongingness and love needs: need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation
    • 4. Esteem needs: need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others
    • 5. Self-Actualization needs: need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential
  21. Characteristics of Self-Actualized people:
    • Realism and acceptance:accurate perception of themselves, others, and external reality
    • Spontaneity
    • Problem Centering: focus on problems outside themselves
    • Autonomy: need privacy and independence
    • Continued freshness of appreciation: appreciate simple pleasures
    • Peak experiences: moments of intense ecstasy, wonder, and awe which their sense of self is lost or transcended
  22. Hunger and Eating:
    • Biological signals for hunger and satiety
    • Non biological factors can override the brain's regulatory processes
    • ---Flavor/smell of food
    • ---Previous experience
    • ---Social rules and cultural traditions
  23. Hunger Drive:
    2 areas of the hypothalamus, the lateral and ventromedial areas, play the role of hunger drive
  24. Lateral nucleus:
    • Causes us to start eating and keep eating
    • Lateral=lATEral
  25. Ventromedial nucleus:
    • Causes us to stop eating and not be interested in food
    • Ventromedial= VomitMeal
  26. Fat Rat:
    • had a lesioned ventromedial area of the hypothalamus
    • resulted in its constant hunger
  27. Hypothalamus and Hunger (3 bullets)
    • hypothalamus reads signs from multiple sources to control hunger and satiety
    • brain monitors glucose via insulin
    • ---when this goes up, we eat less
    • Leptin monitors overall fat level in body
    • ---Leptin, comes from greek word leptos=thin
    • -------------Brain may be less sensitive to leptin in obese people
  28. Cholecystokinin (CKK):
    • regulates meal size
    • CKK causes people to eat smaller meals
  29. Appetite Hormones: (5)
    • Insulin: secreated by pancreas, controls blood glucose
    • Leptin: protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
    • Orexin: hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus
    • Ghrelin: secreted by empty stomach; sends "i'm hungry" signals to the brain
    • PYY: digestive tract hormone, sends "i'm not hungry" signals to the brain
  30. Eating Disorders: Obesity
    -Possible causes:
    • Causes:
    • ---Inadequate physical activity and overeating
    • ---Genetic predisposition
    • ---Psychological explanations
  31. Eating Disorders: Obesity
    -Losing Weight
    • Losing Weight:
    • ---Difficulties b/c of metabolic changes
    • ---Bariatric surgery
    • ---Anti-obesity medications
    • ---Exercise
  32. Research on weight regulation and dieting:
    • Fat cells determined by genetics and food intake
    • Fat cells increase with weight gain, but shrink with weight loss
    • ---may stimulate hunger
    • Weight loss causes a decline in basal metabolism
  33. Why are we overweight? (6)
    • Better tasting food
    • Larger food portions
    • Bigger food variety
    • Snacking
    • BMR
    • Sedentary Lifestyles
  34. Eating disorders: anorexia nervosa (6)
    • characterized by behaviors resulting in weight loss below 85% of normal
    • causes serious, often irreversible physical damage
    • incidence appears to be increasing
    • causes not clear, but often related to: abuse, perfectionistic family, cultural factors, distorted body image
    • about 95% of sufferers are young females
    • despite hunger, refusal to eat
  35. Eating Disorder: bulimia nervosa (5)
    • intense fear of being fat, but may be thin, normal in weight, or even overweight
    • characterized by binging episodes
    • often followed by purging
    • ---vomiting
    • ---laxatives
    • ---excessive exercise
    • There is also non-purge type of bulimia
    • Usually not life threatening, but still has consequences
    • ---esophageal tears
    • ---tooth damage
  36. Eating disorder vs Disordered Eating (2)
    • Extreme dieting or emotional overeating
    • ---not disruptive to other aspects of life
    • ---cant be addressed through regular therapy
    • ---not dangerous to health
    • A huge number of people diet (87% of girls)
    • ---characterized by magical thinking
    • ---unrealistic expectations
    • ---not health based
  37. Sexual behavior (3)
    • Factors affecting sexual motivation and behavior:
    • -Individual's physiology
    • -Learned behavior
    • -The physical and social environment
    • Humans have a diversity of sexual scripts
    • How do we study scientifically??
  38. Sex and Sexual Response Cycle:
    • Sex: physiological based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values
    • Sexual Response Cycle: 4 stages described by Masters and Johnson
    • -excitement
    • -plateau
    • -orgasm
    • -resolution
  39. What shapes sexuality:
    Learning and thinking
  40. Sexual Orientation:
    • Nature of a person's enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction to one another
    • Heterosexual is a moral norm
    • Homosexuality seen as a disease, mental illness, or crime
    • Attempts to alter sexual orientation are often ineffective
  41. Sexual Dysfunctions:
    • problem in a persons desire for or ability to have satisfying sexual activity
    • ---affects 30-50% of adults
    • ---most respond to psychotherapy and/or drugs
    • Common Problems:
    • ---Erectile disorder (men)
    • ---Premature ejaculation (men)
    • ---Arousal disorder (women)
  42. Motivation at work: Industrial/Organization (I/O) Psychology
    application of psychological cooncepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
  43. Motivation at work: 2 sub-fields of I/O psychology
    • Personnel Psychology: focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
    • Organizational Psychology: examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
  44. Flow:
    a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
  45. Structured Interview:
    • process that asks the same job-relevant questions of applications
    • rated on established scales
  46. Achievement and Success in the Workplace (3)
    • Low motivation when one feels they have little or no control over their work environment
    • Ability to set and achieve clear goals can increase job performance and satisfaction
    • Especially effective goals are:
    • ---Personally meaningful
    • ---Specific and concrete
    • ---If supported by management
  47. Achievement Motivation:
    • a desire for significant accomplishment
    • ---for mastery of things, people, or ideas
    • ---for attaining a high standard
  48. 2 kinds of motivation:
    • Intrinsic: desire to perform a behavior based on its own sake
    • Extrinsic: desire to perform a behavior due to its promised rewards or threats of punishments
  49. Leadership, 2 kinds
    • Task Leadership: goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
    • Social Leadership: group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
  50. Leadership, 2 theories
    • Theory X: assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money
    • --workers should be directed from above
    • Theory Y: assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self esteem and to demonstrate competence and creativity
  51. Emotion:
    • a response of the whole oranism
    • -physiological arousal
    • -expressive behaviors
    • -conscious experience
  52. James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

    Perception of stimulus-->arousal-->emotion
  53. Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion
    • Emotion arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:
    • -physiological responses
    • -subjective experience of emotion

    • Perception of stimulus-->Arousal
    •                                -->emotion
  54. Schacter's Two Factor Thoery of Emotion
    • To experience emotion one must:
    • -be physically aroused
    • -cognitively label the arousal

    •                               -->arousal
    • Perception of stimulus              >emotion
    •                               -->cog.label 
  55. Two Dimensions of Emotion
    • + valence, low arousal: pleasant relaxation
    • + valence, high arousal: joy
    • - valence, low arousal: sadness
    • - valence, high arousal: fear, anger
  56. What controls our arousal? (Physiologically)
    Autonomic Nervous System
  57. Epinephrine:
    a hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency.
  58. Lie Detectors: Polygraph
    • machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies
    • measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
    • ---perspiration
    • ---cardiovascular
    • ---breathing changes
  59. 2 questions of polygraph test:
    • Control
    • Relevant
    • Relevant > Control --> LIE
  60. Guilty knowledge test:
    typically used to assess a suspects reponses to details of a crime
  61. Facial expressions are:
    universal, even in blind people
  62. The ingredients of emotion:
    Cognition (appraisal) + Physiology (arousal,etc) + Expression (overt display) =EMOTION
  63. Part of brain that controls emotion:
  64. Anger is most often evoked by events that are:
    • frustrating or insulting
    • interpreted as willful, unjustified, and avoidable
  65. Catharsis:
    • Emotional release
    • catharsis hypothesis: releasing aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
  66. Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
    people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
  67. Subjective Well-Being
    • self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
    • used along with measures of objective well-being
    • ---physical and economic indicators to evaluate people's quality of life
  68. The Adaptation-Level Principle
    • If our current condition increases, we feel an initial surge of pleasure
    • we then adapt to this new level of achievement, consider it normal, and require something even better to give us another surge of happiness
  69. Adaptation-Level Phenomenon:
    • tendency to form judgements relative to a "neutral" level
    • ---brightness of lights
    • ---volume of sound
    • ---level of income
    • defined by our prior experience
  70. Relative Deprivation
    perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
  71. Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion
    every initial emotional triggers an opposing emotion that diminishes the intensity of the initial emotional reaction
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motivation and emotion test
2013-01-28 04:18:31

motivation and emotion psych test
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