Biology 101 Chapter 2

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amcmullen
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195826
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Biology 101 Chapter 2
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2013-01-27 21:13:43
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  1. What are subatomic particles of atoms?
    Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
  2. What subatomic particles build the atomic nucleus?
    Neutrons & Protons
  3. What are the charges of the subatomic particles?
    • Protons - positive
    • Neutrons - uncharged
    • Electrons - negative
  4. What is an isotope?
    An isotope is a different form of the same element, with different numbers of neutrons.
  5. What is radioactive decay?
    The process by which radioisotopes emit subatomic particles of energy when their nucleus breaks down, transforming one element into another at a constant rate.
  6. What characteristic of an outermost shell dictates its tendency to gain or lose electrons?
    The number of electrons in the outermost shell and the number of vacancies in the shell
  7. How are electrons organized around the atomic nucleus?
    The first shell has up to 2 electrons, the second and third shells have up to 8 electrons, and the electrons are organized in pairs. 
  8. What is an ion?
    An ion is an atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal amount of electrons in its outer shell.
  9. What are the 3 types of chemical bonds?
    • Ionic
    • Polar Covalent
    • NonPolar Covalent
  10. Ionic Bond
    A chemical bond that is due to a strong attraction between elements of opposite charges.
  11. Polar Covalent Bond
    Atoms share electrons unequally
  12. Nonpolar Covalent Bond
    Atoms share equally
  13. Hydrogen Bond
    Attraction between two different, separate pairs of covalent bonds
  14. What is the unique characteristic of the water molecule?
    It has cohesion, the ability to stabilize temperature, dissolve substances. 
  15. What are the emergent properties of the water molecule?
    • Cohesion
    • Hydration Shell
    • Effects of water on temperature
  16. What is responsible for raising a Ph?
    Bases raise the Ph level
  17. What is responsible for lowering a Ph?
    Acids decrease the Ph. 
  18. How do we define acids?
    A substance that releases hydrogen ions in water
  19. How do we define bases?
    A substance that accepts hydrogen ions in water
  20. What is a role that the buffer plays in biological systems?
    A buffer helps to maintain homeostasis and keep the Ph level stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to Ph
  21. True or False - every atom has an equal number of protons and electrons?
    False
  22. In the periodic table, elements are arranged according to:
    atomic number
  23. A _____ is a molecule unless a radioisotope has been incorporated
    Tracer
  24. The measure of an atom's ability to pull electrons away from another atom is
    electronegativity
  25. The mutual attraction of opposite charges holds atoms together in a _____ bond
    Ionic
  26. Atoms share electrons unequally in a _____ bond
    Polar covalent
  27. Rank the following types of bonds by polarity in order from least to most:
    • Non-polar Covalent
    • Polar Covalent
    • Ionic 
  28. A _____ substance repels water
    Hydrophobic
  29. A salt releases ions other than 
    • H+
    • OH-
  30. A _____ dissolved in a solvent
    Solute
  31. Hydrogen ions (H+) are 
    • unbound protons
    • indicated by a pH scale
    • in blood
  32. When dissolved in water, a _____ donates H+ and ______ accepts H+
    acid, base
  33. A _____ is a chemical partnership between a weak acid or base and its salt
    buffer
  34. What is the name of an atom that has one proton but no neutrons and no electrons?
    Hydrogen Ion

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