Biology 101 Chapter 2
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Biology 101 Chapter 2
Lecture & Chapter Self-Quiz
What are subatomic particles of atoms?
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
What subatomic particles build the atomic nucleus?
Neutrons & Protons
What are the charges of the subatomic particles?
Protons - positive
Neutrons - uncharged
Electrons - negative
What is an isotope?
An isotope is a different form of the same element, with different numbers of neutrons.
What is radioactive decay?
The process by which radioisotopes emit subatomic particles of energy when their nucleus breaks down, transforming one element into another at a constant rate.
What characteristic of an outermost shell dictates its tendency to gain or lose electrons?
The number of electrons in the outermost shell and the number of vacancies in the shell
How are electrons organized around the atomic nucleus?
The first shell has up to 2 electrons, the second and third shells have up to 8 electrons, and the electrons are organized in pairs.
What is an ion?
An ion is an atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal amount of electrons in its outer shell.
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds?
A chemical bond that is due to a strong attraction between elements of opposite charges.
Polar Covalent Bond
Atoms share electrons unequally
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
Atoms share equally
Attraction between two different, separate pairs of covalent bonds
What is the unique characteristic of the water molecule?
It has cohesion, the ability to stabilize temperature, dissolve substances.
What are the emergent properties of the water molecule?
Effects of water on temperature
What is responsible for raising a Ph?
Bases raise the Ph level
What is responsible for lowering a Ph?
Acids decrease the Ph.
How do we define acids?
A substance that releases hydrogen ions in water
How do we define bases?
A substance that accepts hydrogen ions in water
What is a role that the buffer plays in biological systems?
A buffer helps to maintain homeostasis and keep the Ph level stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to Ph
True or False - every atom has an equal number of protons and electrons?
In the periodic table, elements are arranged according to:
A _____ is a molecule unless a radioisotope has been incorporated
The measure of an atom's ability to pull electrons away from another atom is
The mutual attraction of opposite charges holds atoms together in a _____ bond
Atoms share electrons unequally in a _____ bond
Rank the following types of bonds by polarity in order from least to most:
A _____ substance repels water
A salt releases ions other than
A _____ dissolved in a solvent
Hydrogen ions (H+) are
indicated by a pH scale
When dissolved in water, a _____ donates H+ and ______ accepts H+
A _____ is a chemical partnership between a weak acid or base and its salt
What is the name of an atom that has one proton but no neutrons and no electrons?