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2013-01-28 01:37:36
Cultural Anthropology

Midterm Review II
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  1. Define colonialism.
    Political, social, economic and cultural domination of a territory by a foreign power.
  2. Define imperialism.
    Extending the rule of a nation over other nations.
  3. What was the 1st phase of modern European colonialism?
    1492-1825. It began with the "Age of Discovery" of the Americas and sea routes to Asia.
  4. What was the 2nd phase of modern European colonialism?
    1825-1945, ending with WWII.
  5. British Colonialism
  6. At the peak of the British Empire in 1914, the British ruled over _____ (fraction) of earth's land and _____ (fraction) of world's population.
    1/5; 1/4
  7. What was the common saying about the British Empire?
    That the "sun never set" on the British Empire.
  8. What was the idea, brought about by Prime Minister Disraeli, that said that native peoples were seen as unable to govern themselves?
    "White Man's burden"
  9. In what revolution was British colonialism especially propelled by economic concerns in the late 19th century?
    The Industrial Revolution.
  10. French Colonialism
  11. Where was french colonialism mostly concentrated?
  12. What was it propelled mostly by?
    Goals of military and spiritual expansion (Catholic Church).
  13. What was the interventionist philosophy used by French colonists that was similar to the White Man's burden?
    Mission civilizatrice
  14. How did the French practice indirect rule?
    Governing through native leaders and established political structures in areas with long histories of state organizations.
  15. How did they practice direct rule?
    By bringing new government structures to colonies to control previously stateless societies.
  16. Negative Impacts of Colonialism
  17. How many slaves are there in the world today?
    27 million slaves.
  18. Within the first 100 years of colonization of Americas, what percentage of indigenous peoples were dead?
  19. What was the major cause of these deaths?
    Old World diseases.
  20. What racial typologies of supremacy arose?
    Those of whiteness.
  21. What was artificially constructed?
    National boundaries/institutions?
  22. What spread throughout the world?
    Market systems.
  23. Much environmental destruction occurred, such as: the plundering of _______ resources of colonized lands;
  24. the implementation of _______ agriculture and herding practices in colonized lands;
  25. deforestation ______ and _____ were created due to forced moving of peoples to urban areas.
    increased; slums
  26. Cold War & Neocolonialism
  27. What was the ideological struggle of the Cold War?
    Democracy vs. State-run communism
  28. What was the military struggle of the Cold War?
    NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact
  29. What was the economic struggle of the Cold War?
    Capitalism vs. Socialism
  30. Dependency Theory
  31. According to Dependency Theory, resources and wealth flow _____ to ______ nations.
    poor; wealthy
  32. What types of nations is the world divided into? (3 types)
    • Core nations
    • Semiperiphery nations
    • Periphery nations
  33. What are core nations?
    The First World/North: the most wealthy nations
  34. What are semiperiphery nations?
    Secondary nations.
  35. What are periphery nations?
    The Third World/South: the poorest nations
  36. Poor periphery nations provided ______ access to products from core wealthy nations.
  37. What do core nations use to perpetuate dependency of periphery nations?
    Economic and military force.
  38. Postcolonialism
  39. Define postcolonialism.
    Socio-cultural, economic, and political interaction between (European) nations and former colonies.