Micro Chapter 1 Vocabulary

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Micro Chapter 1 Vocabulary
2013-01-28 01:28:37

Chapter 1
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  1. Chemolithotrophy
    An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds.
  2. Culture
    A particular strain or kind of organism growing in a laboratory medium.
  3. Cytoplasmic Membrane
    A semipermeable barrier that separates the cell interior (cytoplasm) from the environment,
  4. Differentation
    The modification of a cell in terms of structure and/or function occurring during the course of development.
  5. Enrichment Culture Technique
    Use of selective culture media and incubation condition to isolate specific microorganisms from natural samples.
  6. Enzyme
    A catalyst, usually composed of protein, that promotes specific reactions or groups of reactions.
  7. Evolution
    Descent with modifications; DNA sequence variation and the inheritance of that variation.
  8. Genome
    The total complement of genetic information of a cell or a lyzing genomes.
  9. Growth
    In microbiology, an increase in cell number.
  10. Heterocyst
    A differentiated cyanobacterial cell that carries out nitrogen fixation.
  11. Koch's Postulates
    A set of criteria for proving that a given microorganism causes a given disease.
  12. Metabolism
    All biochemical reactions in a cell, both anabolic and bolic intermediates of a cell or organism.
  13. Microorganism
    A microscopic organism consisting of a single cell or cell cluster, also including the viruses, which are not cellular.
  14. Motility
    The property of movement of a cell under its own power.
  15. Nodule
    A tumorlike structure produced by the roots of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing plants. Contains the nitrogen-fixing microbial component of the symbiosis.
  16. Pathogen
    A disease-causing microorganism.
  17. Pure Culture
    A culture containing a single kind of microorganism.
  18. Spontaneous Generation
    The hypothesis that living organisms can originate from nonliving matter.
  19. Sterile
    Free of all living organisms and viruses.
  20. Genus
    A taxonomic group of related species.
  21. Species
    • Defined in microbiology as a collection of strains that all share the
    • same major properties and differ in one or more significant properties
    • from other collections of strains; defined phylogenetically as
    • monophyletic, exclusive groups based on DNA sequence.