A&P Exam 1 Set 2

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reccarynn
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195895
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A&P Exam 1 Set 2
Updated:
2013-01-28 17:21:07
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Tissues Integumentary System
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Chapter 4 - Tissues Chapter 5 - Integumentary System
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  1. Characteristics of Epithelium
    • Polarity:  Apical surface - microvilli, cilia; basal surface - basal lamina
    • Specialized contacts:  Tight junctions (intestines, stomach), desmosomes
    • Basal side supported by connective tissue:  reticular lamina and basal lamina form basement membrane under epithelium
    • Avascular but innervated:  innervated (supplied by nerve fibers), avascular (no blood vessels)
    • Regeneration:  apical-basal polarity and lateral contacts destroyed reproduce themselves rapidly.
    • Forms cell sheets:  cell rich
  2. Functions of epithelium
    • Protection
    • Absorption
    • Filtrationb
    • Excretion
    • Secretion
    • Sensory Reception
  3. Preparing histological slides
    • Preserved:  proteins, not lipids
    • Embed tissue:  wax/plastic (need to remove H2)O first, freeze (doesn't preserve very well)
    • Section:   seel cells, not layers
    • Stain: biological tissue does not have contrast, have to rehydrate before staining.
  4. Types of epithelial tissue
    • Simple squamous
    • Simple cuboidal
    • Simple columnar
    • Pseudostratified columnar
    • Stratified squamous
    • Stratified cuboidal
    • Stratified columnar
    • Transitional
  5. Simple squamous epithelium
    • Single layer of flattened cells
    • Disc-shaped nucleus
    • Sparse cytoplasm
    • Sites of diffusion/filtration or where little activity occurs i.e. kidneys, lungs, lymphatic vessels. blood vessels, heart, capillaries, serous membranes of ventral body cavity
    • diffusion/filtration/secretion
  6. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Single layer of cube cells with large, spherical nuclei
    • Found in kidney tubles, ducts/secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface, salivary glands, thyroid follicles
    • secretion/absorption/diffusion
  7. Simple columnar epithelium
    • Single layer of tall, thin cells, nuclei at base of cell and round/oval, some with cilia, may have goblet cells.
    • Nonciliated line digestive tract, gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands
    • Ciliated line small bronchi, uterine tubes, regions of uterus
    • Protection/sensory input/absorbing and transporting nutrients/mucus secretion
  8. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • Single layer of cells, differing heights, not all reach free surface, nuclei at different levels, may contain goblet cells and/or cilia
    • Ciliated in trachea and upper respiratory tract
    • Nonciliated in sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands.
    • Secretion/propulsion of mucus by ciliary action/trap and move pollutants to mouth
  9. Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Flattened cell on surface overlying layers of usually cuboidal cells toward  basal surface. Outer layers keratinized on dry surfaces (skin), or nonkeratinized on wet surfaces (cornea, lining of upper GI tract)
    • Found in cornea, esophagus, skin, mouth, vagina
    • Protection
  10. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • 2 layers of cuboidal cells
    • Ducts of larger glands (sweat, mammary, salivary)
    • Protection
  11. Transitional epithelium
    • Stratified. Basal cells cuboidal or columnar. Surface cells dome-shaped or squamouslike
    • Found in walls of urinary tract
    • Stretches and allows urinary organ to distend
  12. Gland
    1 or more cells that make/secrete a partiular product
  13. Endocrine Glands
    • Lose their ducts
    • Produce hormones secreted by exocytosis directly from basal side into blood
    • Most are compact, multicellular organs
    • Some individual cells scattered in digestive tract mucos and brain
  14. Exocrine Glands
    • Secrete products onto skin or into body cavities from the apical side
    • Unicellular or multicellular
    • Include mucous, sweat, oil and salivary glands, liver, pancrease and many others
  15. Unicellular exocrine glands
    • Goblet cell
    • In epithelial lining of intestinal and respiratory tracts among columnar cells
    • Produce mucin which turns into mucus
  16. Multicellular exocrine glands
    • have a duct and secretory unit
    • supportive connective tissue surrounds secretory unit
    • Simple glands have unbranched ducts
    • Compound glands have branched ducts
    • Tubular - if secretory cells form tubes
    • Alveolar - small, flasklike sacs
    • Tubuloalveolar - have both types
  17. Functions of Connective Tissue
    • Binding and support
    • Protection
    • Insulation/cushions
    • Storage/Transportation of nutrients
  18. Characteristics of connective tissue
    • Low cell density
    • Matrix rich
    • Range of vascularity
  19. Extracellular matrix
    • Located outside of cells
    • Made of ground substance (gel and fibers)
    • Comes from fibroblast
    • Gel - proteoglycans, viscous solution, resists compression and creates spaces for nutrients/cells to move through
    • Fibrous component - proteins - collagen, elastin, reticular fibers
  20. Types of fibers
    • Collagen - thick, rope like
    • Elastic - long and thin
    • Reticular - fine and short
  21. Connective tissue cell types
    • Fibroblast: CT proper
    • Chondroblast:  cartilage
    • Osteoblast - bone
    • Hematopoietic stem cell - blood
  22. Types of connective tissue
    • Areolar loose CT
    • Adipose loose CT
    • Reticular loose CT
    • Dense regular CT
    • Dense irregular CT
  23. Types of cartilage
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
    • No blood supply
    • No nerves
  24. Areolar Connective Tissue
    • Loose arrangement of all 3 fibers, cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and white blood cells, looks like threads
    • Throughout the body, under skin, packages organs, surrounds capillaries
    • Support, strength, elasticity
  25. Adipose Tissue
    • Sparse matrix with nucleus p[ushed to the side of a fat droplet
    • Beneath the skin, in abdomen, around eyes/kidneys, in breasts
  26. Reticular Connective Tissue
    • Reticular fibers in loose ground substance with cells lying on the network
    • Supports other cell types
    • Located in lymphoid organs
  27. Dense Regular Connective Tissue
    • Collagen fibers all going the same direction with few elastin fibers
    • Tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
    • Attachment of bones/muscles, bones/bones, muscles/muscles, withstands force applied in 1 direction.
  28. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
    • Collagen fibers irregularly arranged, elastic fibers
    • Digestive tract, fibrous capsules of organs and joints, skin dermis
    • Structural strength, withstands force from many directions.
  29. Hyaline Cartilage
    • Glassy-appearing, firm matrix, chondrocytes in lacuna
    • Covering of long bones in joint cavities, nose, ribs/sternum, respiratory system, embryonic skeleton
    • Support, absorption in joints, connection between ribs/sternum
  30. Elastic Cartilage
    • Firm matrix but with more elastin fibers
    • External ear, epiglottis, nose
    • Shape with flexibility
  31. Fibrocartilage
    • Not firm, rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of collagen fibers.
    • Knee cartilage, intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis
    • Absorption, strong support
  32. Bone Tissue
    • Concentric rings of bony matrix around central canals of blood vessels and nerves
    • Protect & support body structures, fat storage, synthesis of blood cells
  33. Blood
    • Red and white blood cells in plasma
    • In blood vessels
    • Transportation of nutrients, wastes, gases, etc.
  34. Nervous Tissue
    • Communication system
    • Neurons - send and receive information
    • Glial cells - help neurons
  35. Regions of neurons
    • Dendrites - receive information
    • Axons - send out information
    • Cell body - nucleus, integrates information
  36. Muscle Tissue Types
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Smooth muscle
  37. Muscle Tissue
    • Cell rich
    • Well vascularized
    • Elongated cells
    • Allow movement
    • Myofilaments
  38. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
    • Voluntary movement
    • Multinucleate cells - oval-shaped nuclei
    • Striated
    • Breathing processing and coordinating movement
  39. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    • Middle layer of heart wall
    • Involuntary control
    • Branched and uninucleate cells
    • Intercalated discs
    • Striated cells
    • Causes heart to "pump"
  40. Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • In walls of internal organs
    • Produce slow, sustained contractions
    • Involuntary control
    • Thin, elongated cells with oval nucleus and points at the end of fibers
    • No striation
    • Regulation of blood pressure and flow of blood, propels substances along ingternal passageways
  41. Epithelial Membranes
    • Cutaneous Membrane
    • Mucous Membrane
    • Serous Membrane
    • Synovial Membrane
  42. Cutaneous Membrane
    • Skin
    • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to thick layer of dense irregular connective tissue
    • Dry membrane
  43. Mucous Membrane
    • Line body cavities that open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts)
    • Wet membraneEither stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia.
    • Absorption/secretion
  44. Serous Membrane
    • Found in closed ventral body cavities
    • Wet membane
    • Simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar tissue
    • Fluid that lubricates the facing surfaces of parietal/visceral layers
    • Pleura - thoracic wall and lungs
    • Pericardium - heart
    • Peritoneums - abdominopelvic cavity and viscera
  45. Tissue Repair
    • Two ways:  Regeneration and fibrosis
    • Step 1:  Inflammation
    • Step 2:  Organization restores blood supply (granulation tissue forms - smooth pink tissue under scabs)
    • Step 3:  Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair. Regeneration - new skin, fibrosis - scar tissue
  46. Regenerative Capacities
    • Regenerate well - epithelial tissues, bone, areolar, dense irregular and blood forming tissue.
    • Moderate regeneration - Smooth muscle, dense regular
    • Weak regeneration - skeletal muscle and cartilage
    • No regeneration - cardiac muscle and nervous tissue
  47. Superficial fascia
    • aka hypodermis - area just deep to the skin and above the  tough connective tissue wrapping of the skeletal muscles
    • consists mostly of adipose tissue
  48. Cells of the epidermis
    • keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • dendritic cells (Langerhans' cells)
    • Merkel cells (touch receptor/tactile cells)
  49. Keratinocytes
    • Produce keratin
    • Start in stratum basale and undergo constant mitosis until they reach the free surface as dead cells and slough off.
  50. Melanocytes
    • Spider-shaped eipthelial cells
    • Synthesize melanin
    • Arise from stratum basale
    • Guard nucleus of keratinocytes from UV rays
  51. Dendritic cells
    • Arise from bone marrow and migrate to epidermis.
    • Phagocytes
  52. Merkel cells
    • Epidermal/dermal jun
    • Shaped like spiky hemispherection
  53. Layers of the epidermis
    • Stratum basale
    • Stratum spinosym
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum lucidum
    • Stratum corneum
  54. Stratum basale
    • Deepest epidermal layer
    • Attached to dermis
    • Mostly a single layer of cuboidal keratinocytes
    • 10-25% melanocytes
    • Occasional Merkel cells
    • Regenerative layer
  55. Stratum spinosum
    • Prickly layer
    • Several cell layers thick - biggest layer
    • weblike system of intermediate filaments, mostly pre-keratin filaments which attach to desmosomes.
    • Also scattered melanin granules and dendritic cells (most abundant in this layer)
  56. Stratum granulosum
    • 4-6 cell layers
    • cells flatten and nuclei and organelles being to disintigrate - squamous-like
    • 2 types of granules - keratohyaline and lamellated (waterproofing glycolipids)
  57. Stratum corneum
    • Horny layer
    • Outer layer, scalelike
    • 20-30 cell layers thick - 3/4 epidermal thickness
    • Dead cells - mostly plasma membrane & keratin
    • Glycolipids in spaces between cells
  58. Stratum lucidum
    • 5th layer
    • Only on soles of feet, palms of hands, fingertips
    • Below stratum corneum
    • Dead cells
  59. Dermis
    • Second region of skin
    • Connective tissue
    • Fibroblasts, macrophages, some mast cells and WBCs
    • Papillary layer
    • Reticular layer
  60. Papillary layer
    • Loose areolar connective tissue
    • Lots of capillaries
    • Projects into epidermis
    • Produces epidermal ridges in palms
  61. Reticular layer
    • Thickest layer - 80%
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
    • Larger blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, deep pressure receptors
  62. Skin colors
    • Melanin - made in skin, darker skinned people
    • Carotene - yellow-to-orange pigment, from diet, concentrates in S. corneum and hypodermis
    • Hemoglobin - reddish hue,
  63. Skin appendages
    • Nails
    • Sweat glands
    • Sebaceous (oil) glands
    • Hair follicles
    • Hair
  64. Sweat glands
    • Eccerine/merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Mammary
    • Ceruminous
    • Over whole body except nipples & parts of external genitalia
    • Simple cuboidal to stratified cuboidal, coiled at base, duct to surface
  65. Eccrine Sweat Gland
    • Most common
    • What our sweat comes from
    • Sweat 99% water, filtrate of blood
    • Controlled by sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
    • Prevents body overheating
  66. Apocrine Sweat Glands
    • Axillary and anogenital area only
    • Approximately 2000 of them
    • Ducts empty into hair follicles
  67. Mammary Glands
    • Modified sweat gland
    • Has cuboidal clusters
    • Larger ducts have stratified cuboidal
  68. Ceruminous Glands
    • External ear canal only
    • Secrete wax
  69. Sebaceous Glands
    • Simple, branched alveolar glands
    • Associated with hair follicle
    • Similar to fat cells but can see nucleus here
    • Arrector pili muscle anchored in same area
    • Softens/lubricates skin/hair
    • Prevents water loss and is antibacterial
  70. Hair
    • 3 layers of elongated keratinized cells:  medulla, cortex, cuticle
    • Surrounded by large hair follicle
    • 2 regions:  hair shaft (above the skin), hair root (in the dermis)
  71. Hair follicle
    • Epithelial root sheath - stratum basale
    • Connective tissue root sheath - derived from dermis
    • Hair bulb -
    • Hair matrix - regenerative region
    • Hair papilla - center of the bulb, dermis, rich in capillaries
    • Hair bulge
    • Arrector pili - smooth muscle, causes goosebumps
  72. Nails
    • Modified epidermis - nail specific keratin
    • Root (emberdded below skin)
    • Body
    • Free edge
    • Nail matrix - continuous with S. basal cells
  73. Functions of skin
    • Protection:
    • physical barrier (keratin, glycolipids, stratified layers)
    • chemical barrier (melanocytes, antibacterial secretions)
    • biological barrier (dendritic cells, macrophages)
    • Waste excretion: in sweat
    • Cutaneous sensation:  sensory receptors
    • Body temperature regulation:
    • Hot - sweat, capillary network dilates
    • Cold - capillary network constricts, hair stands
    • Blood reservoir:  route blood where needed
    • Metabolic functions:  Vitamin D production
  74. Functions of hypodermis
    • Anchors to underlying muscle fascia
    • Shock absorber
    • Insulation
    • 1/2 body fat stores
  75. Skin cancers
    • Basal cell
    • squamous cell
    • Melanoma
  76. Basal cell carcinoma
    • Most common
    • Best cure rate
    • shiny, dome-shaped
  77. Squamous cell carcinoma
    • 2nd most common
    • scaly patches
    • can metastasize
  78. Melanoma
    • Most deadly
    • Use Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, Diameter, Elevation
  79. Burns
    • 1st degree:  partial thickness, no blistering, sunburns
    • 2nd degree:  partial thickness, epidermis and some dermis, blistering because in dermis, fluid loss from blood vessels
    • 3rd degree:  full thickness, epidermis, dermis & hypodermis

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