A phylogenetic domain of prokaryotes consisting of the methanogens, most extreme halophiles and hyperthermophiles, and extreme acidophiles such a Thermoplasma.
An organism able to grow on CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) as sole source of carbon.
All prokaryotes that are not members of the domain Archaea.
A rigid layer present outside the cytoplasmic membrane that confers structural strength on the cell and protection from osmotic lysis.
An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds.
A genetic element carrying genes essential to cellular function. Prokaryotes typically have a single chromosome consisting of a circular DNA molecule. Eukaryotes typically have several chromosomes, each containing a linear DNA molecule.
Prokaryotic oxygenic phototrophs containing chlorophyll a and phycobilins.
The fluid portion of a cell, bounded by the cell membrane.
A semipermeable barrier that separates the cell interior (cytoplasm) from the environment,
The highest level of biological classification. The three domains of biological organisms are the Bacteria, the Archaea, and the Eukarya. Also, used to describe a region of a protein having a defined structure and function.
The engulfment of one cell type by another cell type and the subsequent and stable association of the two cells.
The phylogenetic domain containing all eukaryotic organisms.
A cell or organism having a unit membrane-enclosed nucleus and usually other organelles; a member of the Eukarya.
Descent with modifications; DNA sequence variation and the inheritance of that variation.
An organism that grows optimally under one or more chemical or physical extremes, such as high or low temperature of pH,
The total complement of genetic information of a cell or a lyzing genomes.
A differential staining technique in which cells stain either pink (gram-negative) or purple (gram-positive), depending upon their structural and phylogenetic makeup.
Major phylogenetic lineage of prokaryotic cells that contains mainly peptidoglycans in their cell walls; stain purple in the Gram stain.
A prokaryotic cell whose cell wall contains relatively little peptidoglycan but has an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharide, lipoprotein, and other complex macromolecules.
An organism that requires organic carbon as its carbon source; also a chemoorganotroph.
The aggregated mass of DNA that makes up the chromosome of prokaryotic cells.
A membrane-enclosed structure in eukaryotes containing the genetic material (DNA) organized in chromosomes.
A unit membrane-enclosed structure such as the mitochondrion found in eukaryotic cells.
An organism that obtains energy from light.
The evolutionary (natural) history of organisms.
An extrachromosomal genetic element that is not essential for growth and has no extracellular form.
A cell or organism lacking a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles and usually having its DNA in a single circular molecule. Members of the Bacteria and the Archaea.
A large phylum of Bacteria that includes many of the common gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli.
In microbiology, the ability to distinguish two objects as distinct and separate under the microscope.
Structure composed of RNAs and proteins upon which new proteins are made.
A genetic element containing either RNA or DNA and that replicates in cells; has an extracellular form.
An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds.