Micro Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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j92nguyen
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195896
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Micro Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Updated:
2013-01-28 01:41:54
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Microbiology
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Chapter 2
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  1. Archea
    A phylogenetic domain of prokaryotes consisting of the methanogens, most extreme halophiles and hyperthermophiles, and extreme acidophiles such a Thermoplasma.
  2. Autotroph
    An organism able to grow on CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) as sole source of carbon.
  3. Bacteria
    All prokaryotes that are not members of the domain Archaea.
  4. Cell Wall
    A rigid layer present outside the cytoplasmic membrane that confers structural strength on the cell and protection from osmotic lysis.
  5. Chemolithotroph
    An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds.
  6. Chromosome
    A genetic element carrying genes essential to cellular function. Prokaryotes typically have a single chromosome consisting of a circular DNA molecule. Eukaryotes typically have several chromosomes, each containing a linear DNA molecule.
  7. Cyanobacteria
    Prokaryotic oxygenic phototrophs containing chlorophyll a and phycobilins.
  8. Cytoplasm
    The fluid portion of a cell, bounded by the cell membrane.
  9. Cytoplasmic Membrane
    A semipermeable barrier that separates the cell interior (cytoplasm) from the environment,
  10. Domain
    The highest level of biological classification. The three domains of biological organisms are the Bacteria, the Archaea, and the Eukarya. Also, used to describe a region of a protein having a defined structure and function.
  11. Endosymbiosis
    The engulfment of one cell type by another cell type and the subsequent and stable association of the two cells.
  12. Eukarya
    The phylogenetic domain containing all eukaryotic organisms.
  13. Eukaryote
    A cell or organism having a unit membrane-enclosed nucleus and usually other organelles; a member of the Eukarya.
  14. Evolution
    Descent with modifications; DNA sequence variation and the inheritance of that variation.
  15. Extremophile
    An organism that grows optimally under one or more chemical or physical extremes, such as high or low temperature of pH,
  16. Genome
    The total complement of genetic information of a cell or a lyzing genomes.
  17. Gram Stain
    A differential staining technique in which cells stain either pink (gram-negative) or purple (gram-positive), depending upon their structural and phylogenetic makeup.
  18. Gram-positive Bacteria
    Major phylogenetic lineage of prokaryotic cells that contains mainly peptidoglycans in their cell walls; stain purple in the Gram stain.
  19. Gram-negative Bacteria
    A prokaryotic cell whose cell wall contains relatively little peptidoglycan but has an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharide, lipoprotein, and other complex macromolecules.
  20. Heterotroph
    An organism that requires organic carbon as its carbon source; also a chemoorganotroph.
  21. Nucleoid
    The aggregated mass of DNA that makes up the chromosome of prokaryotic cells.
  22. Nucleus
    A membrane-enclosed structure in eukaryotes containing the genetic material (DNA) organized in chromosomes.
  23. Organelle
    A unit membrane-enclosed structure such as the mitochondrion found in eukaryotic cells.
  24. Phototroph
    An organism that obtains energy from light.
  25. Phylogeny
    The evolutionary (natural) history of organisms.
  26. Plasmid
    An extrachromosomal genetic element that is not essential for growth and has no extracellular form.
  27. Prokaryote
    A cell or organism lacking a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles and usually having its DNA in a single circular molecule. Members of the Bacteria and the Archaea.
  28. Proteobacteria
    A large phylum of Bacteria that includes many of the common gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli.
  29. Resolution
    In microbiology, the ability to distinguish two objects as distinct and separate under the microscope.
  30. Ribosome
    Structure composed of RNAs and proteins upon which new proteins are made.
  31. Virus
    A genetic element containing either RNA or DNA and that replicates in cells; has an extracellular form.
  32. Chemooganotroph
    An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds.

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