LAB5 superior limb

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  1. joints of the pectoral girdle
    the joints that occur btwn the 5 bones forming the pectoral girdle: 2 clavicales, 2 scapulas, and the manibrium of the sternum
  2. in mature skeleton, what kind of joints are the superior limbs composed of, with the exception of what one joint?
    all joints are synovial joints, except for thr radio-ulnar syndesmosis
  3. endosteum
    • the conn.t.p. lining the medullary cavity of a bone.
    • Similar to but thinner than periosteum
  4. flat bones
    • those bones that are generally flattened in one dimenstion
    • (sternum, ribs, scapulae, clavicles, ossa coxae, many bones of the skull)
  5. irregular bones
    the vertebrae and several bones of the head that have jutting processes
  6. long bones
    88 long bones, found in superior and inferior limbs
  7. medullary cavity
    • the space within a bone that contains bone marrow tissue, adipose tissue, and blood.
    • The conn.t.p. that lines the medullary cavity is called endosteum
  8. nutrient canal
    • a neurovascular passageway through the cortex of a bone.
    • External opening is called a nutrient foramen
  9. osseous canaliculi
    • microscopic channels, which extend btwn adjacent osseous lacunae.
    • Cytoplasmic processes from osteocytes extend through these channels from adjacent lacunae to allow nutrient/waste exchange btwn osteocytes
  10. osseous lacunae
    • the tiny spaces within bone tissue that contain osteocytes.
    • located within the "seams" btwn lamellae
    • As osteoblasts extrude their secretory products, some become entrapped in the materials they produce. They then occupy these tiny spaces and are then named osteocytes
  11. "lamellae"
    the layers of entrapped bone cells and the materials that they secrete
  12. concentric lamellae
    • also called osteonal lamellae
    • lamellae that surround vascular channels within the cortex of bone
  13. central canal of an osteon
    the central canal in an osteon which contain vessels
  14. osteon
    a set of concentric (osteonal) lamellae and the vessels in the central canal of an osteon which they surround
  15. external/internal circumferential lamellae
    lamellae that surround and line the whole bone
  16. external circumferential lamellae
    are laid down sequentially like the growth rings of a tree by osteogenesis occurring at the outer bone surface
  17. internal circumferential lamellae
    *do not form until skeletal maturity due to heavy osteoclastic activity on the endosteal surface. This allows the medullary cavity to be hollowed out and enlarged during growth
  18. interstitial lamellae
    remnants of old osteonal lamellae and older (deep) external circumferential lamellae that are left after osteoclasts have "drilled" tunnels to allow new osteons to form
  19. osseous canaliculi
    microscopic channels through the lamellae which contain cytoplasmic processes of the osteocytes and allow those located close to the vessels to exchange nutrients and wastes with those located farther from the vessels
  20. two types of bone tissue
    compact and spongy
  21. cortical bone tissue
    • "compact"; also known as dense bone
    • relatively solid and forms the majority of the substance of most bones
  22. trabecular bone tissue
    • "spongy"; also called cancellous bone
    • consists of slender spicules and reinforcing struts that lend strength without excessive bulk
    • found btwn the inner and outer layers of compact bone tissue in braincase and also within the ends of long bones where it forms reinforcement for overlying articular surface
  23. periosteum
    the conn.t.p. sheath which envelopes the whole bone except where mm, ligaments, retinaula, and joint capsules attach, and at articular surfaces
  24. articular cartilage
    type of hyaline cartilage which covers articular surfaces
  25. perforating fibers
    thick collagenous strands which firmly attach endosteum and periosteum to adjacent bone tissue
  26. nutrient foramen
    the external opening of each nutrient canal
  27. epiphysis
    each end of a long bone
  28. diaphysis
    the shaft of a long bone
  29. epiphyseal or physes cartilages
    cartilaginous growth plates in long bones btwn osseous portions
  30. metaphysis
    • refers to the portion of the diaphysis adjacent to an epiphyseal cartilages
    • part of long bone with greatest metabolic activity
    • often flares when joins the epiphyseal cartilage
  31. short bones
    • found only in wrists and ankles
    • 30 total; 8 metacarpal bones in each carpus and 7 metatarsal bones in each tarsus
  32. axial skeleton vs. appendicular skeleton
    • axial skeleton includes the bones of the head, vertebral column, ribs and sternum
    • appendicular skeleton encompasses the bones of the limbs
  33. pectoral girdle
    • forms bony support for free parts of superior limbs
    • composed of four appendicular bones (L/R scapulae and clavicles) as well as one axial bone (the sternum)
  34. pelvic girdle
    • forms the bony support for the free parts of the inferior limbs
    • composed of two appendicular bones (L/R hip bones) and one axial bone, the bony sacrum
  35. bones of A superior limb
    • includes two flat bones (scapula and clavicle)
    • 2 sesamoid bones (at base of the thumb)
  36. clavicle
    • AT ACROMIAL END: 1 insertion - trapezius m.; 1 origin - deltoid m.
    • AT STERNAL END: 2 mm. origins: sternocleidomastoideus m. and pectoralis major m.
  37. little knot on clavicle
    • conoid tubercle of clavicle
    • con - oid
  38. bone with two necks
  39. condyle
    a rounded articular surface
  40. head
    a rounded articular surface that has no real definitional distinction from a condyle
  41. trochlea
    a smooth, "pulley-like" articular surface upon which another bone glides
  42. fossa
    a shallow depressed area
  43. epicondyle
    non-articulating area adjacent to a condyle
  44. tubercle, tuberosity, tuber, trochanter
    a roughened process typically serving as a site of muscular attachment
  45. process
    a pointed projection typically serving as a site of muscular attachment
  46. fissure
    a narrow, crack-like opening
  47. sinus
    an empty (air-filled) space within a bone
  48. groove
    an elongated drpression
  49. notch
    an indentation in a bone
  50. fovea
    a small pit or depression
  51. position of radius
    lateral component in antebrachium
  52. ulna doesn't articulate with
    carpal bones, doesn't quite reach
  53. what forms the palpable bony prominence at the "point" (tip) of elbow
    olecranon of the ulna
  54. smallest carpal bone
    • pisiform bone
    • located on anteromedial aspect of proximal row of carpal bones
    • *articulates ONLY with triquetral bone
Card Set:
LAB5 superior limb
2013-03-02 03:56:04
Joints superior limb

Superior limb joints
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