Card Set Information
Midterm Review II
Destruction of Amerindian Society (1500-1750)
What are the Varzea extinctions?
A 150 year period in which all chiefdoms on the Amazon flood-plain (varzea) went extinct.
Jesuits in Brazil
When did they arrive?
What are Aldeias?
What is Lingua geral?
The language spoken by the Tupi Guarani, the people of Brazil.
What does tapuio mean?
What is Pombal's Directorate (1759-1798)?
The 1st state-imposed attempt to modernize the Amazon.
What happened to the Indians? The jesuits?
They became docile labor force for colonists; the jesuits were expelled.
Rubber Boom (1850-1920)
When did the bicycle craze/demand for rubber begin?
The late 1800s.
What is the Aviamento system?
The debt patronage rubber system, which is one of supply, credit, and labor control.
True/False: In this system, wages are unknown. If false, why?
What did landowners prevent? (2 things)
Subsistence agriculture and the establishment of families.
Where were workers recruited from?
From draught-plagued Northeast Brazil.
What are caboclos?
What are riberiños?
Their name in Peru.
State Capitalist Expansion: 1920-1964
What did roadbuilding lead to? (3 things)
Encroachment on indigenous lands
Conflicts with settlers
Increased environmental destruction
Militarizing Amazonia: 1964-1985
What marked the beginning of military dictatorships in Latin America?
The military coup in Brazil.
What concept was President Medici suggesting when he said "Give land without people, people without land"?
Filling so-called "empty spaces".
Cattle Development in Brazil
When did cattle become big business in Manaus?
By the 1880s.
By the mid-1970s, Brazil had the ____ largest head of cattle in the world.
However, Brazil also had the largest _____ in the world.
What was the "Decade of Colonization"?
The 1970s, when deforestation increased rapidly.
What is meia praca?
Debt bondage like rubber aviamento.
Brazil was the _____ largest producer of gold worldwide.
Contesting the Military: 1979-1990
The internationalization of the environmental movement included concerns about: (3 things)
Rain forest destruction
Who was one of the leaders of this movement?
Chico Mendes (from Acre, Brazil?)
What are empates?
Who was Mendes killed by?
True/False: Amazon deforestation has increased. If false, why?
False. It only affects 10-12% of the Amazon.
What is still a problem?
Big business ( cutting topical hardwood, agriculture, cattle, mining, and soy)
What has increased tremendously?
Indigenous land reservations.