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complicated behavior patterns usually involving some goal accomplishment. Acts are made up of many individual movements.
Chaining is the process whereby the stimulation caused by one response acts as a stimulus for another response, that response in turn triggers another, and so on.
maintaining stimuli usually caused by some physiological need, such as hunger or thirst.
fatigue method of breaking a habit
Forcing an organism to continue to respond to a source of stimulation until it is fatigued. When it is fatigued, it will respond to the source of stimulation in a way different from the way it originally responded to it.
All forgetting involves blocking out old associations by forming new ones. This is an extreme form of retroactive inhibition.
incompatible response method of breaking a habit
the stimulus for an undesired response is presented, along with another stimulus that will cause a response incompatible with the undesired one. Because of this pairing, the stimulus that originally elicited the undesired response will no longer do so.
behavior patterns that are conditioned to maintaining stimuli.
law of contiguity
Guthrie's one law of learning, which states that when a pattern of stimuli is experienced along with a response, the two will become associated so that when the pattern of stimuli next recurs, it will tend to elicit that response. In 1959, Guthrie revised the law of contiguity to read "What is being noticed becomes a signal for what is being done."
Any source of stimulation that persists until some specific act is performed. For example, putting a rubber band around an animal's nose provides maintaining stimuli until it is removed, and the hunger drive provides maintaining stimuli until the animal eats.
Stimulation caused by the receptors found in the muscles, tendons, and joints of the body. As the body moves, these receptors fire, thereby providing a source of stimulation, or what Guthrie called movement-produced stimuli.
specific responses to specific stimuli. Acts are made up of many specific movements.
the contention that the association between a pattern of stimuli and a response develops at full strength as a result of just one pairing between the two.
principle of association
Voeks's first postulate, which states that when a stimulus and response occur together, they become associated and that only through such contiguity are S-R associations formed.
principle of dynamic situations
Voeks's fourth postulate, which states that stimulus patterns are dynamic because they can be changed by such things as an organism's response, fatigue, or the systematic control of an experimenter.
principle of postremity
Voeks's second postulate, which states that only the last response made in a situation is the response that will be made when the situation recurs and that other responses previously made in the situation will no longer be associated with it.
principle of response probability
Voeks's third postulate, which states that the probability of a response being made in a given situation is a function of the number of cues in that situation associated with the response.
two conditions must be met before punishment will be effective: 1. the punishment must produce behavior that is incompatible with the undesired response, and 2. the punishment must be applied in the presence of the stimuli that elicit the undesired response.
the principle that the response that was last made in a situation is the response that will be made when that situation next recurs.
one of many events that can change a stimulus pattern, thus allowing the association between the previous stimulus pattern and the last response made to it to remain intact. Reinforcement, to Guthrie, was nothing more than a mechanical arrangement that prevents unlearning.
the interference of old learning by new learning.
the tendency to repeat exactly the behavior patterns that were previously made in a situation.
threshold method of breaking a habit
a change in stimulating conditions is introduced so slowly that the organism does not notice it. Finally, the organism is reacting to the changed conditions in a manner other than it would have if the change had not occurred so slowly.
another label for the debate over whether learning occurs gradually and in small increments or in large steps in an all-or-none fashion.
learning to learn
the tendency to become increasingly effective at solving problems as more problems are solved. (a.k.a. learning set.)
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