Medical Flash Cards 1
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What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one contraction.
What is the average stroke volume in an adult male? Female?
- Male - 70 mL
- Female - 65 mL
What is cardiac output?
The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute.
How is cardiac output determined?
Stroke Volume x Heart rate
What is a silent MI?
A MI without any chest pain or traditional s/s
What is PVC? (Heart Arrhythmias)
Premature Ventricular Contraction
What is PEA? (Heart Arrhythmias)
Pulseless Electrical Activity
What heart arrhythmia may or may not present with a pulse?
Ventricular Tachycardia (V-tach)
What is dyspnea?
What is respiration?
The exchange of gas that occurs at the pulmonary and cellular levels.
What is ventilation?
The process of moving air into and out of the lungs.
What nerve controls the diaphragm?
The phrenic nerve
What is tidal volume?
The amount of air drawn into the lungs during a normal breath.
What is the normal tidal volume in an adult?
What is the Hering-Breuer Reflex?
The nervous system mechanism that terminates inhalation and prevents lung overexpansion.
What is diffusion?
The movement of air from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is perfusion?
Supplying an organ or tissue with required oxygen and nutrients.
What is the hypoxic drive?
A backup system that controls respirations based on low arterial oxygen (PaO2) levels.
What is hypoxia?
A condition in which the body's cells and tissues do not have enough oxygen.
What is atelectasis?
The collapse of alveoli.
What is Cor Pulmonale?
Right sided heart failure caused by a respiratory disease.
What is parenchyma?
Blue Bloaters is another name for pt. with ___.
Pink Puffers is another name for pt. with ___.
What is hematemesis?
What is Hemoptysis?
Coughing up blood
What is nuchal rigidity?
Stiffness of the neck
A present radial pulse indicates a systolic BP of at least __ mm Hg.
A present femoral pulse indicates a systolic BP of at least __ mm Hg.
A present carotid pulse indicates a systolic BP of at least __ mm Hg.
What is Prinzemetal's Angina?
Angina caused by vasospasms of the coronary arteries.
What is myocardial ischemia?
A lack of blood flow to the heart due to a blockage of one of the coronary arteries.
What two groups of people tend to have silent MIs or MIs with atypical symptoms?
What is Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)?
A term used to describe any group of symptoms associated with myocardial ischemia.
What are the two categories of angina?
What is stable angina?
Angina that goes away with rest or meds.
What is unstable angina?
Angina that does not go away with rest or meds.
How long does angina normally last?
3-8 min but rarely longer than 15 min.
What are the six common arrhythmias associated with a MI?
- Sinus Tachycardia
- Sinus Bradycardia
- Ventricular Tachycardia (V-Tach)
- Ventricular Fibrillation (V-Fib)
- Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA)
What are the two definitive treatments for a MI?
- Fibrinolytics (Clot busters)
- Angioplasty or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
What is the most common part of the heart to be affected by a MI?
What are the three differences that indicate a MI over angina?
- Pain may start with or without exertion
- Pain does not resolve within 30 min
- May or may not be relieved with rest or Nitroglycerin
What is the #1 killer of women and diabetics in America?
Explain a "run of v-tach"
A string of three or more PVCs in a row.
Name the three layers of the blood vessel.
- Tunica Adventia
- Tunica Media
- Tunica Intima
What is the amount of the bolus that should be given if hypovolemia is suspected?
What is a precordial thump?
A solid blow to the center of the sternum from 6" - 12" above the pt. chest, used only if you witness the arrest and only attempted once.
What are the five links in the chain of survival?
- Early access
- Early CPR
- Early defibrillation
- Early advanced care
- Post-arrest care
When giving a bolus of IV fluid, how often should you reassess to see if the fluid is improving your pt. or not.
q 500 mL
What is Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)?
The average pressure against the arterial wall during a cardiac cycle.
What are the two formulas to determine MAP?
- DBP + 1/3(SBP-DPB)
What is the minimum MAP required to adequately perfuse the average adult?
60 mm Hg
What are the top 3 causes of death?
- 1) Heart disease
- 2) CA
- 3) CVA
What are the top 3 neurological causes of death?
- 1) CVA
- 2) Neoplasms (CA)
- 3) Alzheimer Disease
What is the #1 cause of seizures in children?
What is the #1 cause of seizures in adults?
Not taking their antiseizure medication
What is the most complex organ system in the body?
The nervous system
What are the two parts of the nervous system?
- Central Nervous System (CNS) - Brain and Spinal Cord
- Peripheral Nervous System
What are the three parts of the brain?
- Cerebrum (Largest portion)
- Brain Stem
What does Contralateral mean?
What does Ipsalateral mean?
What does the Occipital lobe of the brain control?
Vision and storage of visual memories
What does the Parietal lobe of the brain control?
Sense of touch and texture; storage of those memories
What does the Temporal lobe of the brain control?
Hearing and smell; storage of sound and odor memories
What does the Frontal lobe of the brain control?
Voluntary muscle control and storage of those memories
What does the Prefrontal lobe of the brain control?
Judgment and predicting consequences of actions; abstract intellectual functions
What does the Limbic system of the brain control?
Basic emotions; basic reflexes
What does the Diencephalon (thalamus) of the brain control?
What does the Diencephalon (hypothalamus) of the brainstem control?
Emotions; temperature control; interaction with the endocrine system
What does the midbrain of the brainstem control?
LOC; reticular activating system; muscle tone and posture
What does the Pons of the brainstem control?
Respiratory patterning and depth
What does the medulla oblongata of the brainstem control?
Heart rate; BP; Respiratory rate
How many cranial nerves are there?
What is the large opening at the base of the skull called?
What is synapses?
The gaps between nerve cells across which nervous stimuli are transmitted.
What are neurotransmitters?
The chemicals produced by the body that stimulate electrical reactions in adjacent neurons?
What is a axon?
A projection from a neuron that makes connections with adjacent cells.
What is a Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)?
- An interruption of blood flow to the brain that results in the loss of brain function.
- AKA - Stoke, Brain Attack
What are infarcted cells?
Cells that die as a result of loss of blood flow.
What are ischemic cells?
Cells that receive enough blood after an event such as a CVA to stay alive but not to function properly.
What is a thrombus?
A locally formed blood clot that interrupts blood flow.
What is a embolism?
A blood clot that has broken off from a thrombus that was formed elsewhere in the body and traveled to the affected area.
What is a arterial rupture?
The rupture of an artery.
What are the two main types of stroke (CVA)?
What is a ischemic stroke?
A CVA that occurs when blood flow to a particular part of the brain is cut off by a blockage.
What is atherosclerosis?
A buildup of calcium and cholesterol that forms a plaque on the inside walls of blood vessels.
What is a hemorrhagic stroke (CVA)?
Occurs as a result of bleeding inside the brain.
What pt. are at most risk for CVAs?
Pt. with HTN or aneurysms
What is the most common cause of a CVA in a young healthy person?
- A berry aneurysm
- Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
What is herniation syndrome?
When ICP is increased to the point that it attempts to push the brain out through the foramen magnum?
What is cushings reflex?
- Irregular Respirations
- **Indicates herniation syndrome**
What are the ventilation rates for a BVM in a adult pt. presenting with herniation syndrome? Child? Infant?
- Adult - 20
- Child - 25
- Infant - 30
What is Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP)?
The BP required to adequately perfuse the brain.
When ICP increases, what happens to CPP?
What is the normal ICP in adults?
0 to 15 mm Hg
What three substances should be in the cranial vault?
What is a Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)?
- Strokelike symptoms in the brain that resolve completely within 24 hrs. of onset.
- AKA ministoke or small stroke
What is aphasia?
The inability to produce or understand speech.
What is receptive aphasia?
Pt. can speak clearly but cannot understand what you are saying, therefore the answer may not match the question.
What is expressive aphasia?
Pt. can understand speech but can not form words, only grunts or incomprehensible sounds.
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