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chemistry
the study of matter and change

matter
has mass and takes up space (volume)

how do we study chemistry
observation, experimentation, measurements

qualitative data
observational data

quantitative data
measurements (number and unit)

significant
not measurable, not appropriate

things that would be significant figures
 all nonzero digits
 zeros that occur between nonzero digits
 for numbers greater than one, the zeros to the right of the decimal place

exact numbers
a number where all of the digits are significant

nonzero integers
numbers that are not zeros

leading zeros
zeros that come before all nonzero digits, never significant

captive zeros
zeros that occur between nonzero digits, always significant

training zeros
zeros that happen at the right end of the number, sometimes significant (when they occur before a decimal point)

conversion factor
ratio of the two parts of the statement that relates the two units

constant
the unit of measurement

significant figures rule for adding/subtracting
the last shared place value determines significance

significant figures rule for multiplying/dividing
your answer should have the same number of significant figures as the number with the least amount of significant figures

metric prefix: 10^{12}
trillion; Tera (T)

metric prefix: 10^{9}
billion; Giga (G)

metric prefix: 10^{6}
million; Mega (M)

metric prefix: 10^{3}
thousand; Kilo (K)

bass units categories and their units
mass (grams g), volume (liters L or cubed meters m^{3}), distance (meters m), time (seconds sec)

metric prefix: 10^{2}
hundredth; centi (c)

metric prefix: 10^{3}
thousandth; milli (m)

metric prefix: 10^{6}
millionth; micro (u)

metric prefix: 10^{9}
billionth; nano (n)

metric prefix: 10^{2}
hundred, Hecto (H)

metric prefix: 10^{1}
ten, Deka (D)

metric prefix: 10^{12}
trillionth, pico

what are the five characteristics of a "good graph"?
 title
 label x+y axes and give them titles
 plot the points
 connect the points using a trend line
 scale and number the axes

where does the independent and dependent variable go on a graph
dependent goes on yaxis; independent goes on xaxis

relationship between solid and liquid volume

how should you read a meniscus
take the value beneath the curve

the shape created by the water in the graduated cylinder
meniscus

percent error
 the extent to which the results could be due to error
 (theoretical valueexperimental value)/theoretical value...x100

derived quantity
calculated quantity, like density

name one lab safety rule
wear closedtoe shoes

