H Chem: Unit 1

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H Chem: Unit 1
2013-03-13 23:44:24
Measurement Calculation

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  1. chemistry
    the study of matter and change
  2. matter
    has mass and takes up space (volume)
  3. how do we study chemistry
    observation, experimentation, measurements
  4. qualitative data
    observational data
  5. quantitative data
    measurements (number and unit)
  6. significant
    not measurable, not appropriate
  7. things that would be significant figures
    • all non-zero digits
    • zeros that occur between non-zero digits
    • for numbers greater than one, the zeros to the right of the decimal place
  8. exact numbers
    a number where all of the digits are significant
  9. nonzero integers
    numbers that are not zeros
  10. leading zeros
    zeros that come before all nonzero digits, never significant
  11. captive zeros
    zeros that occur between nonzero digits, always significant
  12. training zeros
    zeros that happen at the right end of the number, sometimes significant (when they occur before a decimal point)
  13. conversion factor
    ratio of the two parts of the statement that relates the two units
  14. constant
    the unit of measurement
  15. significant figures rule for adding/subtracting
    the last shared place value determines significance
  16. significant figures rule for multiplying/dividing
    your answer should have the same number of significant figures as the number with the least amount of significant figures
  17. metric prefix: 1012
    trillion; Tera (T)
  18. metric prefix: 109
    billion; Giga (G)
  19. metric prefix: 106
    million; Mega (M)
  20. metric prefix: 103
    thousand; Kilo (K)
  21. bass units categories and their units
    mass (grams g), volume (liters L or cubed meters m3), distance (meters m), time (seconds sec)
  22. metric prefix: 10-2
    hundredth; centi (c)
  23. metric prefix: 10-3
    thousandth; milli (m)
  24. metric prefix: 10-6
    millionth; micro (u)
  25. metric prefix: 10-9
    billionth; nano (n)
  26. metric prefix: 102
    hundred, Hecto (H)
  27. metric prefix: 101
    ten, Deka (D)
  28. metric prefix: 10-12
    trillionth, pico
  29. what are the five characteristics of a "good graph"?
    • title
    • label x+y axes and give them titles
    • plot the points
    • connect the points using a trend line
    • scale and number the axes
  30. where does the independent and dependent variable go on a graph
    dependent goes on y-axis; independent goes on x-axis
  31. relationship between solid and liquid volume
    • 1 cm3=1mL
    • 1dm3=1L
  32. how should you read a meniscus
    take the value beneath the curve
  33. the shape created by the water in the graduated cylinder
  34. percent error
    • the extent to which the results could be due to error
    • (theoretical value-experimental value)/theoretical value...x100
  35. derived quantity
    calculated quantity, like density
  36. name one lab safety rule
    wear closed-toe shoes