Ch 10-gestalt theory and Ch12-Tolman

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Ch 10-gestalt theory and Ch12-Tolman
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2013-01-28 14:41:57
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  1. absolute theory
    the contention of the behaviorists that what an organism learns are specific responses to specific stimuli
  2. relational theory
    the contention of the Gestalt psychologists that organisms should learn principles or relationships and not specific responses to specific stimulit
  3. transposition
    the Gestalt version of transfer of training, which states that a principle that works in solving a problem will tend to be applied to the solution of similar problems.
  4. insightful learning
    learning that occurs very rapidly, is remembered for a considerable length of time, and transfers readily to situations related to the one in which the insightful learning took place.
  5. Zeigarnik effect
    the tendency to remember uncompleted tasks longer than completed ones.
  6. behavioral environment
    According to Koffka, the environment as it is consciously experienced. Also referred to as subjective reality.
  7. geographical environment
    According to Koffka, the physical or objective environment. Also referred to as objective reality. 
  8. isomorphism
    As used by the Gestalt psychologists, the relationship that exists between brain activity and consciousness. 
  9. epiphenomenalism
    the belief that body sensations cause mental images. In other words, mental images are seen as the by-products of body experiences.
  10. principle of closure
    tendency to complete incomplete experiences, thereby making them more meaningful.
  11. law of Pragnanz
    the overriding principle in Gestalt psychology, which states that all mental events tend toward completeness, simplicity, and meaningfulness.
  12. life space
    Kurt Lewin's concept to describe the simultaneous influences on a person at a given time. Anything that can affect behavior is called a "psychological fact," and the total number of psychological facts influencing a persona at any given moment is that person's life space. 
  13. Gestalt
    a german word meaning pattern or configuration.
  14. phi phenomenon
    the experience of apparent motion that is caused by lights flashing on and off at a certain frequency. Wertheimer's discovery of apparent motion launched the Gestalt school of psychology. 
  15. cathexis
    the formation of an association between a certain drive state, such as hunger, and certain stimuli, such as the foods one is accustomed to eating. When a drive occurs, one actively seeks out the stimuli that have been previously associated with its satisfaction.
  16. cognitive dissonance
    a psychological state experienced when there is a discrepancy between what is expected and what actually occurs. 
  17. cognitive map
    a mental picture of the environment.
  18. confirmation of an expectancy
    when the prediction made about some future event is found to be accurate.
  19. demand
    the intervening variable that corresponds to maintenance schedule. As the number of hours without eating goes up, for example, demand is thought to increase.
  20. drive discriminations
    the fact that organisms can discriminate between various drive states and can therefore adjust their behavior so that appropriate goal objects can be experienced. Drive discriminations are one part of Tolman's six proposed kinds of learning. 
  21. emphasizer
    A role that motivation plays in Tolman's theory. The motivational state of an organism determines which environmental events will be emphasized in that organism's perceptual field. 
  22. equivalence beliefs
    similar to the notion of secondary reinforcement, in that a previously neutral event develops the capability of satisfying a need. One of Tolman's six proposed kinds of learning.
  23. expectancy
    learning that one event leads to another. A belief or hypothesis about the occurrence of a future event.
  24. field-cognition modes
    learned or inherited strategies that are utilized while attempting to solve problems. Field-cogntion modes are one part of Tolman's six proposed kinds of learning.
  25. field expectancies
    similar to a cognitive map, in that the organism comes to know which events in a given environment lead to other events. Field expectancies are one of part of Tolman's six proposed kinds of learning. 
  26. hypotheses
    expectancies that occur in the early stages of learning.
  27. latent extinction
    extinction that occurs simply because an animal is allowed to observe that a reinforcer is no longer available. Such extinction does not depend on the performance of nonreinforced responses.
  28. latent learning
    learning that appears to take place independent of reinforcement and that remains dormant until the organism is given an incentive for translating what has been learned into behavior. 
  29. maintenance schedule
    the feeding schedule arranged by the experimenter for an organism during a learning experiment. 
  30. means-end readiness
    an expectancy that is consistently confirmed; sometimes referred to as a belief. 
  31. molar behavior
    a large segment of behavior that is goal directed and therefore purposive.
  32. motor patterns
    the learning of the overt behavior that the organism must utilize in reaching a desired goal. motor patterns are one part of Tolman's six proposed kinds of learning. 
  33. place learning
    learning where an object is located. According to Tolman, once the location of an object is known, it can be reached by any number of alternate routes. 
  34. principle of least effort
    the contention that a task will always be done in a manner that requires the least amount of effort or work.
  35. purposive behavior
    Behavior directed toward some goal, such as going to the store, cooking a meal, or solving a maze.
  36. purposive behaviorism
    a behavioristic approach that studies purposive behavior as such and does not attempt to reduce such behavior into smaller elements for further analysis.
  37. reinforcement expectancy
    the fact that an organism learns to expect a certain reinforcer if it engages in certain behaviors. Performance is disrupted when the original reinforcer used in a learning situation is replaced with a different reinforcer. 
  38. response learning
    the learning of specific responses that are effective in solving a problem and thereby providing reinforcement. 
  39. vicarious trial and error
    the hesitation at a choice point in a learning situation, where it looks "as if" the animal is weighing the alternatives before it decides what to do.

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