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Name 4 of the 7 characteristics of ALL living organisms.
- -Composed of cells
- -Complex and ordered
- -Respond to environment
- -Can grow, develop, and reproduce
- -Obtain and use energy
- -Maintain internal balance (homeostasis)
- -Allow for evolutionary adaption
What is the cell theory?
- 1. Cells are the basic unit of life.
- 2. All cells come from existing cells.
- 3. All living organisms are composed of cells
What are the 3 domains of life?
- 1. Eukarya
- 2. Archaea
- 3. Bacteria
All organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions that are different from their environment.
The fundamental elements of matter.
Clusters of atoms.
Groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit.
A biological community and the physical habitat it lives in.
Define and give an example of emergent properties.
Properties that emerge as a function of the interaction of two things. As more things come together, more properties emerge.
Example: You cannot leave a footprint in a single grain of sand.
Define deductive reasoning.
The reasoning of mathematics and philosophy, and is used to test the validity of general ideas in all branches of knowledge.
Define inductive reasoning.
Uses specific observations to conduct general scientific principles. Leads to generalizations that can be tested.
What is the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning?
Deductive reasoning tests the validity of general ideas.
Inductive reasoning leads to generalizations that can be tested.
Define test experiment.
One variable is altered in a known way to test a hypothesis.
Define control experiment.
The variable is left unaltered.
What is the difference between a test experiment and a control experiment?
In a test experiment, one variable is altered.
In a control experiment, the variable is left unaltered.
The basis underlying all of biology. Living things are now different from how they began.
Define artificial selection.
People breed certain varieties of things to produce certain results.
Define natural selection.
Nature produces variations of breeds.
Items with the same evolutionary origin, but have changed in relation to the particular way of life of each organism.
Stuctures (i.e. wings on birds and butterflies) with similar functions but different evolutionary origins.
Define phylogenic tree.
A representation of the evolutionary history of the gene. "family tree"
Specific sequences of several hundred to many thousand nucleotides; a discrete unit of information.
Define covalent bonds.
The sharing of electrons.
What is the atomic weight of an atom?
(# of protons) + (# of neutrons)
An atom having an atomic number of 12 needs how many electrons to electrically neutral?
An atom having an atomic number of 8 needs how many electrons to electrically neutral?
A measure of how much the nucleus of an atom pulls on the electrons around them.
Define h-bond/hydrogen bond.
The chemical bond formed when a slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
A "water-loving" non-polar molecule.
A "water-fearing" molecule.