HUman growth and development

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HUman growth and development
2010-05-17 14:18:26

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  1. behavioral and social cognitive theories
    Theories that hold that development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment.
  2. biological processes
    Changes in an individual's physical nature.
  3. Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems theorycase study An in-depth examination of an individual.
    Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsyste, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
  4. case study
    An in-depth examination of an individual.
  5. cognitive processes
    Changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language.
  6. Cohort effect
    Effects that are due to a subject's time of birth or generation but not age.
  7. context
    The setting in which development occurs that is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.
  8. continuity-discontinuity issue
    The debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
  9. Vygotsky's theory
    A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
  10. theory
    A coherent set of ideas that helps to explain data and to make predictions.
  11. standardized test
    A test that is given with uniform procedures for administration and scoring.
  12. stability-change issue
    The debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change.
  13. social policy
    A national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
  14. socioemotional processes
    Changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality.
  15. socioeconomic status (SES)
    Refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
  16. social cognitive theory
    The theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development.
  17. psychoanalytic theories
    Theories that hold that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion, that behavior is merely a surface characteristic, that it is important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior, and that early experiences are important in development.
  18. Piaget's theory
    The theory that children construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
  19. normative history-graded influences
    Biological and environmental influences that are associated with history. These influences are common to people of a particular generation.
  20. normative age-graded influences
    Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
  21. nonnormative life events
    Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals.
  22. nature-nurture issue
    The debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture. Nature refers to an organism's biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences.
  23. naturalistic observation
    Observation that occurs in a real-world setting without an attempt to manipulate the situation
  24. longitudinal approach
    A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.
  25. life-span perspective
    The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together.
  26. laboratory
    A controlled setting.
  27. information-processing theory
    A theory that emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. The processes of memory and thinking are central.
  28. hypotheses
    Assertions or predictions, often derived from theories, that can be tested.
  29. gender
    The psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male.
  30. experiment
    A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied is manipulated and all other factors are held constant. Experimental research permits the determination of cause.
  31. ethology
    An approach that stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
  32. ethnicity
    A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language.
  33. Erikson's theory
    A psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human life span. Each state consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
  34. eclectic theoretical orientation
    An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories.
  35. development
    The pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through the human life span.
  36. descriptive research
    This type of research aims to observe and record behavior.
  37. culture
    The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
  38. continuity-discontinuity issue
    The debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
  39. cross-sectional approach
    A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
  40. cross-cultural studies
    Comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which to which children's development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and to the degree to which it is culture-specific.
  41. correlational research
    The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics.
  42. correlation coefficient
    A number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables.