Physiology and Anatomy of Domestic Animals

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  1. Cell Components
    • Cell membrane
    • Cytoplasmic Organelles
    • Nucleus
  2. Phospholipid bilayer
    -Phospholipids arranged with their polar(hydrophilic heads) facing the protein layer and their non-polar (hydrophobic tails) facing eachother.
  3. Types of cell transport
    Active and passive
  4. Diffusion
    Distribution of a substance in a solvent so that it gets equally concentrated
  5. Simple Diffusion
    Down a concentration gradient
  6. Facilitated Diffusion
    Down a concentration gradient but requires a carrier protein (transmembrane protein)
  7. Osmosis
    • -Movement of water across semi-permeable membranes
    • -From low to high solute concentration
  8. Isotonic
    • -Solution has the same osmotic pressure.
    • -Ex: 0.9% NaCl
  9. Hypotonic
    • -Solution has lower osmotic pressure
    • -Less conc. than saline
    • -Creates hemolysis (swell) of the cell
  10. Hypertonic
    • -Solution has higher osmotic pressure
    • -causes crenation (shrivel) of the cell
  11. Active Transport
    • -Low to high concentration
    • -ATP required- Hydrolyzed by ATPase activity of the carrier
    • -Phosphorylation of carrier causes change in shape and movement of molecule
    •   -Changes transmembrane protein
  12. Example of Active Transport
    NA-K ATPase pump
  13. Components in cytoplasm
    • -Cytosol (liquid component)
    • -Organelles
    • -Cytoskeleton (filaments/microtubules)
  14. Cell Organelles
    • -Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • -Mitochondria
    • -Ribosomes
    • -Lysosomes
  15. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • -Found in muscle cell to store calcium
    • -Found in endocrine grands and muscle cells
  16. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • -Protein Synthesis
    • -Covered in ribosomes
  17. Mitochondria
    • -Powerhouse of the cell
    • -Muscle cells has abundance 
  18. Lysosomes
    • -Membrane-bond vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes
    • -Originate from ER and Golgi
    • -Many in WBC...none in RBC
    • -Capable of fusing with intracellular organelles
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Physiology and Anatomy of Domestic Animals
2013-01-29 00:16:31
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