Ability to achieve goals despite opposition from others
Social Institution through which power is acquired and excercised by some people and groups
Kings, Queens, Pharoahs, Emperors and religious dignitaries
Politicians, Soldier, or entertainers
legal, Elected or appointed government officials and officers in a formal organization
total control over people's lives
rule by rulers, deny public input
Functionalist, Decisions are made on behalf of the people by leaders, Competition among leadership groups makes abuse of power difficult, People can influence public policy by voting, power is disbursed throughout interest groups. Critique: People who are poor in our society, don't have someone to speak for them
Conflict theory: Power is concentrated at the top of a pyramid shaped hierarchy, Public policy reflects the values and preferences of the elite. Sociological Imagination: C. Wright Mills. Sociological Mindfullness: Schwable
Iron Triangle of power
also known as Military industrial complex. Congress budgets funds for defense projects. Department of Defense. Defense contractors contribute to political action committees, lobby congress
Business in more than one country. Don't pay import taxes, cheap labor, raw materials, less safety standards, no unions
Condition when several companies control overwhelming stakes in an industry. Comes from Oligarchy, Ruled by a few
Sick role - Functionalist
people who are sick are exempt from obligations but must want to get well and seek competant help
Conflict: Inequalities in health and health care
Problems in health care are rooted in the capitalist system
symbolic interactionist: social construction of illness
People socially construct "health" and "illness" and how treat them.
process by which medical professionals take something that is not a medical problem or issue then define as treatable and medical
postmodernist: the clinical gaze
doctors gain power through observing patients to gather information, thus appearing to speak wisely
Study of populations, way populations change, size, composition
Changes in population
Occur as a result of: Fertility, Mortality, and migration
maximum number of children a women can have
If left unchecked, population could achieve available food supply. Population increases in geometric progression (2,4,8,16..). food supply would only increase by an arithmetic progression (1,2,3,4..)
using technology, food can be produced for a growing population. Overpopulation will lead to the eventual destruction of capitalism. Workers will become dissatisfied and develop class-consciousness because of shared oppression.
More than 10 million people. Examples: Tokyo, LA, NYC, Lagos, Calcutta, Shanghai
Concentric zone model
Created by Burgess. Due to invasion, succession and gentrification, cities are a series of circular zones, each characterized by a particular land use.
Lower class gets kicked out by higher class trying to revamp society.
Voluntary, Spontaneous behavior that is engaged by a large number of people, breaking dominant norms.
Factors that contribute to Collective behavior
Structural factors that increase the chances of people responding in a particular way. Timing. Breakdown in social control Mechanisms
People who happen to be in the same place at the same time
people who come together for a scheduled event and share a common focus
crowds that engage in activites intended to achieve political goals
people releasing emotions with others who experience similar emotions
collectives so intensly focused that they may erupt into violent behavior
people are discontent when they compare their achievements with others join social movements to get their "fair share"
Social Construction: Frame Analysis
Used to determine how people assign meaning to activities and processes in social movements. Garfman
Social Movement: Reform
movements seek to improve society by changing an aspect of the social structure
Social movement: revolutionary
movements seek to bring about a total change in society
Social movement: religious
movements seek to produce radical changes in individuals and typically are based on spiritual or supernatural belief systems
Social Movement: Alternative
movements seek limited change in some aspect of people's behavior
Social movement: resistance
movements seek to prevent or undo change that has already occured.
Conditions necessary for social movements
structural conduciveness, structural strain, spread of a generalized belief, precipating factors, mobilization for action, social control factors
first stage. People begin to become aware of a threatening problem
2nd stage. People begin to organize and start making the threat known to the public