Cavia porcellus and Chinchilla lanigera

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kris10leejmu
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196122
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Cavia porcellus and Chinchilla lanigera
Updated:
2013-01-28 21:13:15
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Exotic Animals One
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Exotic Animals
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  1. What is Cavia porcellus?
    guinea pigs
  2. What are the three different varieties in guinea pigs?
    • short hair:  English
    • rough hair:  Abyssinian
    • long hair:  Peruvian
  3. What is another name for guinea pigs?
    cavies
  4. Where are guinea pigs from?
    native of Peruvian Andes (Peru)
  5. Why were guinea pigs initially brought to the US?
    to be used as lab animals
  6. What are guinea pigs used for in Peru?
    food
  7. How long do guinea pigs live?
    6 - 9 years
  8. What is a female guinea pig called?  Male?
    • female:  sow
    • male:  boar
  9. What kind of teeth do guinea pigs have?
    incisors and molars are open-rooted
  10. Do guinea pigs jump or climb?
    no
  11. Are guinea pigs social animals?
    no
  12. Do guinea pigs build nests?
    no
  13. How much protein and fiber should guinea pigs have in their diet?
    • protein:  18%
    • fiber:  16%
  14. Can guinea pigs produce vitamin C?
    no, it has to be added to their diet
  15. Why do we need to be careful with hay and alfalfa sticks?
    the sticks can penetrate the gums and cause abscesses
  16. How can we tell the difference between males and female guinea pigs?
    • males have a vertical slit and you can press above and the penis should come out
    • females have a Y shaped anogenital area
  17. Are guinea pigs easy to restrain?
    • yes, they don't have any weapons
    • may squeal when picked up
  18. What do we exam for a physical exam on a guinea pig?
    • palpate
    • auscult the heart and lungs
    • oral exam - look at incisors and molars
    • ophthalmic exam
  19. What can happen to the molars of guinea pigs?
    molars can get points on them if they aren't worn down properly
  20. Can we usually hear lung sounds in guinea pigs?
    no
  21. Describe a guinea pigs heart.
    very fast...too fast to count
  22. Is collecting blood in a guinea pig easy?
    no, it can be a challenge
  23. Where are the different places to collect blood in a guinea pig?
    • ear vein
    • cephalic vein
    • medial saphenous vein
  24. Are guinea pigs continuously estrus?
    no
  25. How long is the guinea pig estrous cycle?
    14 - 19 days
  26. What is a copulation plug?
    semen coagulates in the vagina and then is expelled from the vagina 12 hours post breeding
  27. How long is gestation in guinea pigs?
    59 - 72 days (average 63 days)
  28. Why is gestation so long in guinea pigs?
    because they produce precocious young
  29. How many babies are in a guinea pigs litter?
    1 - 6
  30. What do baby guinea pigs look like when they are born?
    • fully furred
    • eyes open
    • fully mobile
  31. Do guinea pigs require a lot of maternal care?
    no, they can be weaned a couple days after birth if you want to as long as you give them softened food
  32. When are guinea pigs weaned?
    1 - 3 weeks
  33. When do guinea pigs reach puberty?
    5 weeks
  34. When can guinea pigs start to breed?
    at 3 months
  35. Why should we make sure guinea pigs are bred before they are 7 months old?
    at 9 months the pubis becomes bony and doesn't expand as well which increases the change of dystocia
  36. How much vitamin C do guinea pigs need per day?
    20 mg/kg daily
  37. If guinea pigs have a vitamin deficiency, when would we start seeing signs?
    within 2 weeks
  38. What are the signs of a vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs?
    • weak
    • anorexic
    • sores on feet and in mouth
    • stiff
    • nasal discharge
    • die within 4 weeks
  39. How do we treat vitamin deficiency in guinea pigs?
    treat with 50 - 100 mg/kg of vitamin C daily until they get better (the length of time of treatment depends on how severe the deficiency is)
  40. If a guinea pig is presented to us with nasal discharge, what is usually always the problem?
    pneumonia
  41. What is pneumonia associated with in guinea pigs?
    stress (overcrowding, dirty cage, temperature too high or too low)
  42. What are the clinical signs of pneumonia in guinea pigs?
    • nasal discharge
    • dyspnea
    • anorexia
  43. How do we treat pneumonia in guinea pigs?
    antibiotics and vitamin C
  44. Can guinea pigs get pneumonia from dogs?
    yes, they can catch bordetella from dogs
  45. What is lymphadenitis in guinea pigs?
    cervical nodes enlarged usually from bacteria in the mouth
  46. How do we treat lymphadenitis?
    lance abscess, flush, and treat with antibiotics
  47. Which antibiotics should we avoid in guinea pigs that can cause antibiotic toxicity?
    • clindamycin
    • lincocin
    • penicillins
    • amoxicillin and ampicillin
    • cephadroxil and cephalexin
    • cephazolin
    • chlortetracycline and oxytet dihydrostreptomycin
  48. What kind of antibiotic should we use for guinea pigs?  When should we stop them?
    • broad spectrum antibiotics
    • stop if diarrhea occurs and supplement with lactobacillus
  49. What is a good antibiotic to use for guinea pigs?
    doxycycline
  50. Can guinea pigs easily have a heat stroke?
    yes, they are unable to pant or sweat
  51. What types of guinea pigs are more at risk for heat strokes?
    • obese
    • pregnant
  52. What is a sign of a guinea pig having a heat stroke?
    licking at feet, but most of the time don't show any signs
  53. What causes slobbering in guinea pigs?
    overgrown molars
  54. What are signs of slobbers in guinea pigs?
    • act hungry, but won't eat
    • sour mouth odor
    • wet fur around mouth
  55. How do we treat slobbers in guinea pigs?
    anesthetize and drill or file off points
  56. What does a guinea pig with a rough hair coat indicate?
    mites
  57. Is cystitis more common in male or female guinea pigs?
    females
  58. Cystitis is often _____ with no signs in guinea pigs.
    chronic
  59. What are the signs of cystitis in guinea pigs?
    • hematuria
    • cystic calculi may be present
  60. How do we treat cystitis in guinea pigs?
    • same as in dogs
    • remove stones
  61. Which kinds of guinea pigs do we see pregnancy toxemia in?
    • obese
    • anorexic
  62. When do we usually see pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs?
    in late gestation or early post partum
  63. What are the signs of pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs?
    • anorexia
    • lethargy
    • dyspnea
    • death in 2 - 5 days
  64. How do we treat pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs?
    treat as ketosis
  65. Does pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs have a good prognosis?
    no, poor prognosis
  66. When is dystocia common in guinea pigs?
    in sows first bred after 7 months and obese sows
  67. How do we treat dystocia in guinea pigs?
    • treat with Ca and oxytocin
    • may have to do a caesarian
  68. When do we see uterine prolapse in guinea pigs?  How do we treat it?
    • postpartum from pushing so hard 
    • clean it up, make it shrink back down with sugar, push it back in
  69. What are some common surgical procedures we often do with guinea pigs?
    • castration
    • OVH
    • cystotomy
    • mass removal
    • laparotomy
  70. How do we surgically prep a guinea pig?
    • similar to cats
    • aseptic technique
  71. What kind of sutures do we use for guinea pigs?
    subcuticular sutures so they do not chew on them
  72. What is the common neoplasia guinea pigs get?
    mammary neoplasia
  73. What kind of castration complications do guinea pigs have?
    • swelling in inguinal area due to open inguinal rings - after castration intestines will fall into it
    • doctor will often put a suture in the inguinal rings to keep intestines from falling
  74. What causes dermatophytosis in guinea pigs?
    caused by keeping them on hay as a bedding
  75. What are Chinchilla lanigera?
    chinchilla
  76. Where are chinchillas from?
    Andes mountains
  77. What are chinchillas raised for?
    their pelts
  78. What are pelts?
    chinchilla fur
  79. What kind of teeth do chinchillas have?
    open rooted incisors and molars
  80. What is the lifespan of a chinchilla?
    about 10 years
  81. How do we restrain chinchillas?
    • gentle
    • support their body because they can be nervous and jump
    • don't grab hair because it can pull their hair out
    • don't lift by their tails
  82. Which are larger, male or female chincillas?
    female
  83. Are chinchillas social animals?
    yes, but beware when introducing new males
  84. What are chinchilla's fur like?
    • very fine fur and bushy tail
    • most are gray in color
  85. Are chinchillas nocturnal?
    nocturnal in the wild but can be active during the day in captivity 
  86. What temperature should we keep chinchillas in?
    • sensitive to temperatures > 80 degrees
    • keep at 60 - 70 degrees
  87. What type of humidity should we keep chinchillas in?
    40 - 60% humidity
  88. What kind of diet should chinchillas have?
    • chinchilla pellets available
    • can use some rabbit pellets
    • supplement with quality hay
    • use veggies as treats
  89. Do we need to monitor how much chinchillas eat?
    • yes, they can over eat 
    • feed about 2 tbsp a day
  90. How do we tell the difference between female and male chinchillas?
    • females are larger and have a cone-shaped clitoris and 4 mammae
    • males have no true scrotum and testicles can be seen during breeding
  91. Chinchillas are seasonally polyestrus.  When do they cycle?  How long does their cycle last?
    • November to May
    • 40 days
  92. How many uterine horns do chinchillas have?
    2
  93. How long is gestation in chinchillas?
    111 days
  94. What kind of young do chinchillas have?
    precocious
  95. How many babies do chinchillas have?
    2
  96. When do we wean chinchillas?
    6 - 8 weeks
  97. When do chinchillas reach puberty?
    7 - 9 months
  98. Because chinchillas have fine fur, what do they require?
    dust baths to keep hair from matting
  99. What can we use for dust baths for chinchillas?
    • store bought dust bath from the pet store
    • diatomaceous earth
    • fuller's earth and silver sand (1:9)
  100. How often should chinchillas take dust baths?
    daily - 3 x/week
  101. What should we avoid using for dust baths?
    talc and sand
  102. Are GI disorders common in chinchillas?
    yes
  103. What can cause GI disorders in chinchillas?
    • abrupt diet changes
    • stress
    • antibiotics
    • predispose to it
  104. How do we treat GI disorders in chinchillas?
    antibiotics and bacterial supplement
  105. What is the main complication with GI disorders in chinchillas?
    dehydration
  106. What are respiratory disorders related to in chinchillas?
    • overcrowding
    • poor ventilation
    • increase humidity
  107. What are the clinical signs of respiratory disorders in chinchillas?
    • nasal discharge
    • poor coats
    • dyspnea
    • emaciation
  108. What microorganisms cause respiratory disorders in chinchillas?
    • bordetella
    • strep
    • pasteurella
  109. Do chinchillas with a respiratory disorder have a poor prognosis?
    yes
  110. Are slobbers common in chinchillas?
    yes, more common than in guinea pigs
  111. Do chinchillas have heat strokes?
    yes
  112. What kind of dermatophytosis do chinchillas get?
    ringworm
  113. How do chinchillas get conjunctivitis?
    from a mechanical irritation (foreign body)
  114. Do chinchillas do barbering?
    yes
  115. What is "fur slip" in chinchillas?
    rough handling and a patch of fur comes out
  116. What is paraphimosis in chinchillas?
    • penis fur ring
    • penis gets stuck and fur ring needs to be removed

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