Cavia porcellus and Chinchilla lanigera
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Cavia porcellus and Chinchilla lanigera
Exotic Animals One
What is Cavia porcellus?
What are the three different varieties in guinea pigs?
What is another name for guinea pigs?
Where are guinea pigs from?
native of Peruvian Andes (Peru)
Why were guinea pigs initially brought to the US?
to be used as lab animals
What are guinea pigs used for in Peru?
How long do guinea pigs live?
6 - 9 years
What is a female guinea pig called? Male?
What kind of teeth do guinea pigs have?
incisors and molars are open-rooted
Do guinea pigs jump or climb?
Are guinea pigs social animals?
Do guinea pigs build nests?
How much protein and fiber should guinea pigs have in their diet?
Can guinea pigs produce vitamin C?
no, it has to be added to their diet
Why do we need to be careful with hay and alfalfa sticks?
the sticks can penetrate the gums and cause abscesses
How can we tell the difference between males and female guinea pigs?
males have a vertical slit and you can press above and the penis should come out
females have a Y shaped anogenital area
Are guinea pigs easy to restrain?
yes, they don't have any weapons
may squeal when picked up
What do we exam for a physical exam on a guinea pig?
auscult the heart and lungs
oral exam - look at incisors and molars
What can happen to the molars of guinea pigs?
molars can get points on them if they aren't worn down properly
Can we usually hear lung sounds in guinea pigs?
Describe a guinea pigs heart.
very fast...too fast to count
Is collecting blood in a guinea pig easy?
no, it can be a challenge
Where are the different places to collect blood in a guinea pig?
medial saphenous vein
Are guinea pigs continuously estrus?
How long is the guinea pig estrous cycle?
14 - 19 days
What is a copulation plug?
semen coagulates in the vagina and then is expelled from the vagina 12 hours post breeding
How long is gestation in guinea pigs?
59 - 72 days (average 63 days)
Why is gestation so long in guinea pigs?
because they produce precocious young
How many babies are in a guinea pigs litter?
1 - 6
What do baby guinea pigs look like when they are born?
Do guinea pigs require a lot of maternal care?
no, they can be weaned a couple days after birth if you want to as long as you give them softened food
When are guinea pigs weaned?
1 - 3 weeks
When do guinea pigs reach puberty?
When can guinea pigs start to breed?
at 3 months
Why should we make sure guinea pigs are bred before they are 7 months old?
at 9 months the pubis becomes bony and doesn't expand as well which increases the change of dystocia
How much vitamin C do guinea pigs need per day?
20 mg/kg daily
If guinea pigs have a vitamin deficiency, when would we start seeing signs?
within 2 weeks
What are the signs of a vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs?
sores on feet and in mouth
die within 4 weeks
How do we treat vitamin deficiency in guinea pigs?
treat with 50 - 100 mg/kg of vitamin C daily until they get better (the length of time of treatment depends on how severe the deficiency is)
If a guinea pig is presented to us with nasal discharge, what is usually always the problem?
What is pneumonia associated with in guinea pigs?
stress (overcrowding, dirty cage, temperature too high or too low)
What are the clinical signs of pneumonia in guinea pigs?
How do we treat pneumonia in guinea pigs?
antibiotics and vitamin C
Can guinea pigs get pneumonia from dogs?
yes, they can catch bordetella from dogs
What is lymphadenitis in guinea pigs?
cervical nodes enlarged usually from bacteria in the mouth
How do we treat lymphadenitis?
lance abscess, flush, and treat with antibiotics
Which antibiotics should we avoid in guinea pigs that can cause antibiotic toxicity?
amoxicillin and ampicillin
cephadroxil and cephalexin
chlortetracycline and oxytet dihydrostreptomycin
What kind of antibiotic should we use for guinea pigs? When should we stop them?
broad spectrum antibiotics
stop if diarrhea occurs and supplement with lactobacillus
What is a good antibiotic to use for guinea pigs?
Can guinea pigs easily have a heat stroke?
yes, they are unable to pant or sweat
What types of guinea pigs are more at risk for heat strokes?
What is a sign of a guinea pig having a heat stroke?
licking at feet, but most of the time don't show any signs
What causes slobbering in guinea pigs?
What are signs of slobbers in guinea pigs?
act hungry, but won't eat
sour mouth odor
wet fur around mouth
How do we treat slobbers in guinea pigs?
anesthetize and drill or file off points
What does a guinea pig with a rough hair coat indicate?
Is cystitis more common in male or female guinea pigs?
Cystitis is often _____ with no signs in guinea pigs.
What are the signs of cystitis in guinea pigs?
cystic calculi may be present
How do we treat cystitis in guinea pigs?
same as in dogs
Which kinds of guinea pigs do we see pregnancy toxemia in?
When do we usually see pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs?
in late gestation or early post partum
What are the signs of pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs?
death in 2 - 5 days
How do we treat pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs?
treat as ketosis
Does pregnancy toxemia in guinea pigs have a good prognosis?
no, poor prognosis
When is dystocia common in guinea pigs?
in sows first bred after 7 months and obese sows
How do we treat dystocia in guinea pigs?
treat with Ca and oxytocin
may have to do a caesarian
When do we see uterine prolapse in guinea pigs? How do we treat it?
postpartum from pushing so hard
clean it up, make it shrink back down with sugar, push it back in
What are some common surgical procedures we often do with guinea pigs?
How do we surgically prep a guinea pig?
similar to cats
What kind of sutures do we use for guinea pigs?
subcuticular sutures so they do not chew on them
What is the common neoplasia guinea pigs get?
What kind of castration complications do guinea pigs have?
swelling in inguinal area due to open inguinal rings - after castration intestines will fall into it
doctor will often put a suture in the inguinal rings to keep intestines from falling
What causes dermatophytosis in guinea pigs?
caused by keeping them on hay as a bedding
What are Chinchilla lanigera?
Where are chinchillas from?
What are chinchillas raised for?
What are pelts?
What kind of teeth do chinchillas have?
open rooted incisors and molars
What is the lifespan of a chinchilla?
about 10 years
How do we restrain chinchillas?
support their body because they can be nervous and jump
don't grab hair because it can pull their hair out
don't lift by their tails
Which are larger, male or female chincillas?
Are chinchillas social animals?
yes, but beware when introducing new males
What are chinchilla's fur like?
very fine fur and bushy tail
most are gray in color
Are chinchillas nocturnal?
nocturnal in the wild but can be active during the day in captivity
What temperature should we keep chinchillas in?
sensitive to temperatures > 80 degrees
keep at 60 - 70 degrees
What type of humidity should we keep chinchillas in?
40 - 60% humidity
What kind of diet should chinchillas have?
chinchilla pellets available
can use some rabbit pellets
supplement with quality hay
use veggies as treats
Do we need to monitor how much chinchillas eat?
yes, they can over eat
feed about 2 tbsp a day
How do we tell the difference between female and male chinchillas?
females are larger and have a cone-shaped clitoris and 4 mammae
males have no true scrotum and testicles can be seen during breeding
Chinchillas are seasonally polyestrus. When do they cycle? How long does their cycle last?
November to May
How many uterine horns do chinchillas have?
How long is gestation in chinchillas?
What kind of young do chinchillas have?
How many babies do chinchillas have?
When do we wean chinchillas?
6 - 8 weeks
When do chinchillas reach puberty?
7 - 9 months
Because chinchillas have fine fur, what do they require?
dust baths to keep hair from matting
What can we use for dust baths for chinchillas?
store bought dust bath from the pet store
fuller's earth and silver sand (1:9)
How often should chinchillas take dust baths?
daily - 3 x/week
What should we avoid using for dust baths?
talc and sand
Are GI disorders common in chinchillas?
What can cause GI disorders in chinchillas?
abrupt diet changes
predispose to it
How do we treat GI disorders in chinchillas?
antibiotics and bacterial supplement
What is the main complication with GI disorders in chinchillas?
What are respiratory disorders related to in chinchillas?
What are the clinical signs of respiratory disorders in chinchillas?
What microorganisms cause respiratory disorders in chinchillas?
Do chinchillas with a respiratory disorder have a poor prognosis?
Are slobbers common in chinchillas?
yes, more common than in guinea pigs
Do chinchillas have heat strokes?
What kind of dermatophytosis do chinchillas get?
How do chinchillas get conjunctivitis?
from a mechanical irritation (foreign body)
Do chinchillas do barbering?
What is "fur slip" in chinchillas?
rough handling and a patch of fur comes out
What is paraphimosis in chinchillas?
penis fur ring
penis gets stuck and fur ring needs to be removed