BIO205 Ch#4 Study guide

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  1. 10-2 m, or 1/100 of a meter?
  2. 10-3 m, or 1/1000 of a meter?
  3. 10-6 m, or 1/1,000,000 of a meter?
    um- micro
  4. 10-9 m, or 1/1,000,000,000 of a meter?
  5. What is the correct order of the following wavelengths from shortest to longest:
    • Gamma rays
    • X rays
    • UV light 
    • Infrared
    • Microwave
    • Radio waves and Television
  6. What does a convex lens do to an image?
    • Focuses light on a focal point
    • The image is enlarged and inverted as light rays pass the focal point and spread apart.
  7. What two properties determine the clarity of an image? What do each of these terms mean? (resolution and contrast)
    • Resolution- (revolving power) is ability to distinguish objects that are close together.
    • Contrast- Differences in intensity b/w two objects or b/w an object and its background.
  8. What is the most common type of microscope?
    bright-field microscope
  9. What kind of objects can best be seen with a compound light microscope?
    • Typical bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Mitochondrion
    • Chloroplasts
    • Human red blood cell
    • Large protozoan
    • Flea
  10. What kind of microscope is best for viewing viruses and ribosomes?
    • Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
    • Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
  11. What is the difference b/w a simple and a compound microscope?
    • Simple- contains a single lens
    • Compound- Uses series of lenses for magnification
  12. What is the function of oil and oil immersion lens on a light microscope?
    Oil immersion increases magnification and resolution by providing light.
  13. What is the function of the condenser lens?
    Directs light through the specimen
  14. Be able to calculate the total magnification for each of the following objective lenses:
    4X, 10X, 40X, 100X objectives
    • ----                                      =40X
  15. When would you use a "dark field" microscope?
    • For pale objects.
    • Small or colorless cells
  16. What is the appearance of the object through a dark field microscope?
    specimen appears light against a dark background
  17. When would you use a phase microscope?
    To examine living microorganisms or specimens that would be damaged or altered by attaching them to slides or staining them.
  18. What is the advantage of the UV light?
    Increases resolution and contrast
  19. What type of scope is used for immunofluorescence?
    Fluorescent microscopy
  20. How high can electron microscopes magnify objects?
    • 10,00X
    • 100,000X
  21. What are the two types of electron microscopes?
    • Transmission electron
    • Scanning electron
  22. What type of microscope gives a 3-D view of the external surface of a specimen and magnifies it up to 10,000 times?
    scanning electron
  23. What is the purpose of staining specimens?
    increase contrast and resolution
  24. Are most cells best stained with acidic dyes or basic dyes?
    Basic dyes because they are negatively charged
  25. Are simple stains such as methylene blue, crystal violet, and safranin acidic or basic?
    basic- simple
  26. What can be determined by using simple stains of bacterial cells?
    • size
    • shape
    • arrangement of cells
  27. What is advantage of differential stains?
    Different cells, chemicals or structures can be distinguished 
  28. Gram stain?
    • structure of cell wall
    • Differentiates b/w two large groups of microorganisms 
    • purple- gram positive
    • pink- gram negative
  29. Acid - fast stain?
    • waxy cell wall
    • mycobac- human disease nocardia
  30. endospore stain?
    • Bacillus and Clostridium
    • walls are impermeable to chemicals
  31. Histological stains?
    • tissue samples
    • screen for presence of fungi and carbohydrates
  32. What are the 8 categories for taxanomic classification
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • SPecies
  33. What are the three Domains?
    • Eukarya
    • Bacteria
    • Archea
  34. What are the four kingdoms of DOmain Eukarya?
    • Animalia
    • Plantae
    • FUngi
    • Protista
  35. What are the four kingdoms of Domain of Prokaryotic?
  36. What tests and characteristics are used to identify and classify microorganisms
    • Physical characteristics- morphology(shape)
    • Biochemical Tests-use amino acids, starch, citrate, gelatin
    • Serological Tests- study of antigen-anitbody
  37. What is the purpose of a dichotomous key?
    enables to identify unknown species 
  38. Who built his own microscope in the 1670's and was the first person to observe microorganisms through his simple microscope?
  39. Who developed the system of binomial nomenclature in the mid 1700's, and proposed only two kingdoms for all organisms?
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BIO205 Ch#4 Study guide
2013-01-29 00:42:02

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