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10-2 m, or 1/100 of a meter?
10-3 m, or 1/1000 of a meter?
10-6 m, or 1/1,000,000 of a meter?
10-9 m, or 1/1,000,000,000 of a meter?
What is the correct order of the following wavelengths from shortest to longest:
- Gamma rays
- X rays
- UV light
- Radio waves and Television
What does a convex lens do to an image?
- Focuses light on a focal point
- The image is enlarged and inverted as light rays pass the focal point and spread apart.
What two properties determine the clarity of an image? What do each of these terms mean? (resolution and contrast)
- Resolution- (revolving power) is ability to distinguish objects that are close together.
- Contrast- Differences in intensity b/w two objects or b/w an object and its background.
What is the most common type of microscope?
What kind of objects can best be seen with a compound light microscope?
- Typical bacteria
- Human red blood cell
- Large protozoan
What kind of microscope is best for viewing viruses and ribosomes?
- Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
- Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
What is the difference b/w a simple and a compound microscope?
- Simple- contains a single lens
- Compound- Uses series of lenses for magnification
What is the function of oil and oil immersion lens on a light microscope?
Oil immersion increases magnification and resolution by providing light.
What is the function of the condenser lens?
Directs light through the specimen
Be able to calculate the total magnification for each of the following objective lenses:
4X, 10X, 40X, 100X objectives
- 4X OBJECTIVE LENS
- ---- =40X
- 10X OCULAR LENS
When would you use a "dark field" microscope?
- For pale objects.
- Small or colorless cells
What is the appearance of the object through a dark field microscope?
specimen appears light against a dark background
When would you use a phase microscope?
To examine living microorganisms or specimens that would be damaged or altered by attaching them to slides or staining them.
What is the advantage of the UV light?
Increases resolution and contrast
What type of scope is used for immunofluorescence?
How high can electron microscopes magnify objects?
What are the two types of electron microscopes?
- Transmission electron
- Scanning electron
What type of microscope gives a 3-D view of the external surface of a specimen and magnifies it up to 10,000 times?
What is the purpose of staining specimens?
increase contrast and resolution
Are most cells best stained with acidic dyes or basic dyes?
Basic dyes because they are negatively charged
Are simple stains such as methylene blue, crystal violet, and safranin acidic or basic?
What can be determined by using simple stains of bacterial cells?
- arrangement of cells
What is advantage of differential stains?
Different cells, chemicals or structures can be distinguished
- structure of cell wall
- Differentiates b/w two large groups of microorganisms
- purple- gram positive
- pink- gram negative
Acid - fast stain?
- waxy cell wall
- mycobac- human disease nocardia
- Bacillus and Clostridium
- walls are impermeable to chemicals
- tissue samples
- screen for presence of fungi and carbohydrates
What are the 8 categories for taxanomic classification
What are the three Domains?
What are the four kingdoms of DOmain Eukarya?
What are the four kingdoms of Domain of Prokaryotic?
What tests and characteristics are used to identify and classify microorganisms
- Physical characteristics- morphology(shape)
- Biochemical Tests-use amino acids, starch, citrate, gelatin
- Serological Tests- study of antigen-anitbody
What is the purpose of a dichotomous key?
enables to identify unknown species
Who built his own microscope in the 1670's and was the first person to observe microorganisms through his simple microscope?
Who developed the system of binomial nomenclature in the mid 1700's, and proposed only two kingdoms for all organisms?