Oceanography Chapters 1-4 (Terms and Concepts)

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Oceanography Chapters 1-4 (Terms and Concepts)
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Oceanography Chapters 1-4 (Terms and Concepts)
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  1. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Plate Movement)
    Apart <--|-->
  2. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Types)
    • Ocean-Ocean
    • Continent-Continent
  3. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean - Sea Floor Details)
    New sea floor created
  4. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent - Sea Floor Details)
    Continent splits, new sea floor created
  5. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean - Tectonic Process)
    Sea Floor Spreading
  6. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent - Tectonic Process)
    Continental Rifting
  7. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean Features)
    • 1) Mid-ocean Ridge
    • 2) Volcanoes
    • 3) Young Lava Flows
  8. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent Features)
    • 1) Rift Valley
    • 2) Volcanoes
    • 3) Young Lava Flows
  9. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean Examples)
    • 1) Mid-Atlantic Ridge
    • 2) East Pacific Rise
  10. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent Examples)
    • 1) East African Rift Valleys
    • 2) Red Sea
    • 3) Gulf of California
  11. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Plate Movement)
    Together -->|<--
  12. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Types)
    • Ocean-Continent
    • Ocean-Ocean
    • Continent-Continent
  13. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Continent - Sea Floor Details)
    Old sea floor is destroyed
  14. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Continent - Tectonic Process)
    Subduction
  15. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Continent - Features)
    • 1) Trench
    • 2) Volcanic Arc on land
  16. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Continent - Examples)
    • 1) Andes Mountains
    • 2) Cascade Mountains
  17. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean - Sea Floor Details)
    Old Sea Floor Destroyed
  18. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean -Tectonic Process)
    Subduction
  19. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean - Features)
    • 1) Trench
    • 2) Volcanic Arc as islands
  20. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Ocean-Ocean - Examples)
    • 1) Aleutian Islands
    • 2) Mariana Islands
  21. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent - Sea Floor Details)
    N/A
  22. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent - Tectonic Process)
    Collision
  23. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent - Features)
    1) Tall Mountains
  24. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    (Continent-Continent - Examples)
    • 1) Himalaya Mountains
    • 2) Alps
  25. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Plate Movement)
    Past each other

    • ----->
    • <-----
  26. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Types)
    • Oceanic
    • Continental
  27. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Oceanic - Sea Floor Details)
    N/A
  28. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Oceanic - Tectonic Process)
    Transform Faulting
  29. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Oceanic - Features)
    Fault
  30. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Oceanic - Examples)
    • 1) Mendocino Fault
    • 2) Eltanin Fault (between mid-ocean ridges)
  31. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Continental - Sea Floor Details)
    N/A
  32. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Continental - Tectonic Process)
    Transform Faulting
  33. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Continental - Features)
    Fault
  34. Transform Plate Boundaries/Transform Faults
    (Continental - Examples)
    • 1) Sean Andreas Fault
    • 2) Alpine Fault (New Zealand)
  35. Types of Marine Sediments
    • Lithogenous
    • Biogenous
    • Hydrogenous
    • Cosmogenous
  36. Lithogenous Compositions
    Continental Margin (Rock fragments, Quartz Sand, Quartz Silt, Clay)

    Oceanic (Quartz Silt, Clay, Volcanic Ash)
  37. Lithogenous Sources
    Continental Margin - Rivers, Coastal Erosion, Landslides, Glaciers, Turbidity Currents

    Oceanic - Wind-blown Dust, Rivers, Volcanic Eruptions
  38. Lithogenous Locations
    Continental Margin - Continental Shelf, Continental Shelf in High Latitudes, Continental Slope/Rise, Ocean Basin Margins

    Oceanic - Deep Ocean Basins
  39. Biogenous Compositions
    • Calcium Carbonate
    • Silica
  40. Lithogenous Sources
    Calcium Carbonate - Warm Surface Water

    Silica - Cold Surface Water
  41. Biogenous Locations
    Calcium Carbonate - Low Latitude Regions, Sea Floor Above CCD, Along Mid-Ocean Ridges and the tops of Volcanic Peaks; Continental Shelf, Beaches; Shallow Low-Latitude Regions

    Silica - High Latitude Regions, Sea Floor below CCD, upwelling areas where cold deep water rises to the surface especially that caused by surface current divergence near the equator
  42. Hydrogenous Compositions
    • Manganese Nodules
    • Phosphorite
    • Oolites
    • Metal Sulfides
    • Evaporites
  43. Hydrogenous Sources
    Precipitation of dissolved materials directly from seawater due to chemical reactions
  44. Hydrogenous Locations
    Manganese Nodules - Abyssal Plain

    Phosphorite - Continental Shelf

    Oolites - Shallow Shelf in Low-Latitude Regions

    Metal Sulfides - Hydrothermal Vents at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Evaporites - Shallow Restricted Basins where Evaporation is High in Low-Latitude Regions
  45. Cosmogenous Compositions
    • Iron-Nickel Spherules/Tektites
    • Iron-Nickel Meteorites
  46. Cosmogenous Sources
    • Iron-Nickel Spherules/Tektites - Space Dust
    • Iron-Nickel Meteorites - Meteors
  47. Cosmogenous Locations
    Iron-Nickel Spherules/Tektites - In very small proportions mixed with all types of sediment and in all marine environments

    Iron-Nickel Meteorites - Localized near meteor impact structures
  48. -phere's?
    • Asthenosphere
    • Lithosphere
    • Mesosphere
  49. Asthenosphere
    • Warm
    • Upper mantle
    • Plastic—deforms by flowing
    • High viscosity—flows slowly
  50. Lithosphere
    • Cool
    • Rigid
    • Brittle
    • Includes Oceanic & Continental Crust

    Crust and Uppermost Mantle Fused Together
  51. Anaerobic Bacteria
    Type of Autotroph

    AKA Chemosynthesis
  52. Autotroph
    Algae & Plants
  53. Basalt
    Characteristic of Oceanic Crust

    A dark-colored volcanic rock

    Contains minerals w/ relatively high iron and magnesium content
  54. Chemosynthesis
    Process by which bacteria or archaea synthesize organic molecules from inorganic nutrients using chemical energy released from the bonds of a chemical compound by oxidation

    AKA anaerobic bacteria
  55. Continental Crust
  56. Density Stratification
    A layering based on density, where the highest density material occupies the lowest space
  57. Fusion Reaction
    A type of reaction where hydrogen atoms are converted to helium atoms, thereby releasing large amounts of energy
  58. Half-Life
    The time required for half the atoms of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay to an atom of another element

    • Basically, how old a rock is.
    • A rock loses radioactivity over time...
  59. Heterotroph
    Animals and bacteria that depend on the organic compounds produced by other organisms as food.

    Organisms not capable of producing their own food by photosynthesis.
  60. Isostatic Adjustment
    The adjustment of crustal material due to isostasy.
  61. Isostatic Rebound
    The upward movement of of crustal material due to isostasy.
  62. Mantle
    The zone between the core and the crust of Earth.
  63. Radiometric Age Dating
    A technique that involves the use of radioactive half-lives to determine the age of the rock.
  64. Viscosity
    High in the Asthenosphere
  65. Atoll
    A ring-shaped coral reef growing upward from a submerged volcanic peak.

    May have low-lying islands composed of coral debris.

  66. Continental Accretion
    Growth or increase in size of a continent by gradual external addition of crustal material.
  67. Continental Arc
    An arc-shaped row of active volcanoes produced by subduction that occurs along convergent active continental margins.
  68. Continental Drift
    The theory that the continents are in motion over Earth's surface.
  69. Continental Transform Fault
  70. Fringing Reef
    A reef that is directly attached to the shore of an island or continent.
  71. Guyot
    AKA tablemount
  72. Hotspot
  73. Island Arc
    • A linear arrangement of islands, many being volcanic.
  74. Magnetic Anomaly
    A distortion of the regular pattern of Earth's magnetic field resulting from the various magnetic properties of local concentrations of ferromagnetic minerals in Earth's crust.
  75. Magnetic Dip
    The dip of magnetite particles in rock units of Earth's crust relative to sea level.

    Approximately equal to latitude.

    AKA magnetic inclination
  76. Magnetic Field
    A condition found in the region around a magnet or electric current

    The magnetic poles
  77. Mid-Ocean Ridge

    1) What are common along the central axis?
    2) What is it a source of?
    A linear, volcanic mountain range that extends through all the major oceans.

    • 1) Rift Valleys
    • 2) New oceanic crustal material
  78. Ocean Trench
  79. Oceanic Ridge
    A portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system that is characterized by slow spreading and steep slopes.

  80. Oceanic Rise
    A portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system that is characterized by fast spreading and gentle slopes.

  81. Paleogeography
    The study of the historical changes of shapes and positions of the continents and oceans.
  82. Paleomagnetism
    The study of Earth's ancient magnetic field.
  83. Polar Wandering Curve
    A curve that shows the change in the position of a pole through time.
  84. Rift Valley
    A deep fracture or break, extending along the crest of a mid-ocean ridge.

  85. Rifting
    The movement  of two plates in opposite directions such as along a divergent boundary.
  86. Sea Floor Spreading
    A process producing the lithosphere when convective upwelling of magma along the oceanic ridges moves along the ocean floor away from the ridge axes.

  87. Seamount
    An individual volcanic peak extending over 1000 meters  above the surrounding ocean floor.

  88. Seismic Moment Magnitude
    A scale used for measuring earthquake intensity based on energy released in creating very long-period seismic waves.
  89. Spreading Center
    AKA a divergent plate boundary
  90. Subduction Zone
    A long, narrow region beneath Earth's surface in which subduction takes place.

  91. Tablemount
    A conical volcanic feature on the ocean floor resembling a seamount except that it has has its top shortened to a relatively flat surface.

    AKA guyot

  92. Transform Plate Boundary
    The boundary between two lithospheric plates formed by a transform fault.
  93. Transform Faulting
  94. Volcanic Arc
    An arc shaped row of active volcanoes directly above a subduction zone.

    Can occur as row of islands (island arc) or mountains on land (continental arc).

  95. Wilson Cycle
    A model that uses plate tectonic processes to show the distinctive life cycle of ocean basins during their formation, growth, and destruction.
  96. Abyssal Hill
    A volcanic peak rising less than 1km above the ocean floor.

  97. Abyssal Hill Province
    A deep-ocean region (mostly in Pacific), where oceanic sedimentation rates are so low that abyssal plains do not form and the ocean floor is covered with abyssal hills.
  98. Abyssal Plain
    A flat depositional surface extending seaward from the continental rise or oceanic trenches.

  99. Active Margin
    A continental margin marked by marked by a high degree of tectonic activity.

    Includes: Convergent Active Margins and Transform Active Margins
  100. Bathymetry
    The measurement of ocean depth.
  101. Black Smoker
    A hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor that emits a black cloud of hot water filled with dissolved metal particles.

  102. Continental Borderland
    A highly irregular portion of the continental margin that is submerged beneath the ocean and is characterized by depths greater than those characteristic of the continental shelf.
  103. Continental Margin
    The submerged area next to a continent comprising the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise.

  104. Continental Rise
    A gently sloping  depositional surface at the base of the continental slope.

  105. Continental Shelf
    A gently sloping depositional surface extending from the low water line to the depth of a marked increase in slope around the margin of a continent or island.

  106. Continental Slope
    A relatively steeply sloping surface lying seaward of the continental shelf.

  107. Convergent Active Margin
  108. Deep-Ocean Basin
    Areas of the ocean floor that have deep water, are far from land, and are underlain by basaltic crust.
  109. Deep-Sea Fan
    A large fan-shaped deposit  commonly found on the continental rise seaward of such sediment-laden rivers as...

    AKA submarine fan

  110. Echo Sounder
    A device that transmits sound from a ship's hull to the ocean floor where it is reflected back to receivers.

    Speed of water is known so the depth can be calculated by travel time.
  111. Fracture Zone
    An extensive linear zone of unusually irregular topography of the ocean floor, characterized by large seamounts, steep-sided ridges, troughs, or long, steep slopes.

  112. Graded Bedding
    Classes in which each layer displays a decrease in grain size from bottom to top.
  113. Hydrothermal Vent
    Usually located near the axis of spreading along the mid-ocean ridge.
  114. Hypsographic Curve
    A curve that displays the relative elevations of the land surface and depths of the ocean.
  115. Metal Sulfide
    A compound containing one or more metals and sulfur.
  116. Pacific Ring of Fire
    An extensive zone of volcanic and seismic activity that coincides roughly with the borders of the Pacific Ocean.
  117. Passive Margin
    A continental margin that lacks a plate boundary and is marked by a low degree of tectonic activity.

    Ex: Atlantic Ocean
  118. Pillow Basalt
    A basalt exhibiting pillow structure.

    Lava displaying discontinuous pillow-shaped masses caused by rapid cooling of lava.

    AKA pillow lava
  119. Pillow Lava
    A basalt exhibiting pillow structure.

    Lava displaying discontinuous pillow-shaped masses caused by rapid cooling of lava.

    AKA pillow basalt
  120. Precision Depth Recorder (PDR)
    Way to measure bathymetry
  121. Seaknoll
    AKA abyssal hill
  122. Shelf Break
    The depth at which the gentle slope of the continental shelf steepens appreciably.

    Marks the boundary between the continental shelf and continental rise.
  123. Sounding
    A measured depth of water beneath a ship.
  124. Submarine Canyon
    A steep, V-shaped canyon cut into the continental shelf or slope.

  125. Submarine Fan
    A large fan-shaped deposit  commonly found on the continental rise seaward of such sediment-laden rivers as...

    AKA deep-sea fan
  126. Suspension Settling
    The process by which fine-grained material that is being suspended in the water column  slowly accumulates on the sea floor.
  127. Transform Active Margine
  128. Turbidite Deposit
    A sediment or rock formed from sediment deposited by turbidity currents characterized by both horizontally and vertically graded bedding.
  129. Turbidity Current
    A gravity current resulting from a density increase brought about by increased water turbidity.
  130. White Smoker
    Similar to black smoker but emits water that is of a lower temperature and is white in color.
  131. Aragonite
    A form of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) that is less common and less stable than Calcite.
  132. Calcareous Ooze
  133. Calcite
    • A mineral
    • CaCO3
  134. Calcite Compensation Depth (CCD)
    The depth at which the amount of Calcite (CaCO3) produced by the organisms in the overlaying water column is equal to the amount of Calcite the water can dissolve.

    No calcite deposition occurs below
  135. Calcium Carbonate
    • CaCO3
    • A chalk-like substance secreted by many organisms
  136. Chalk
    A soft, compact form of Calcite
  137. Coccolith
    Tiny calcareous discs
  138. Coccolithophore
    A microscopic planktonic form of algae encased by a covering composed of calcareous discs.
  139. Diatom
  140. Diatomaceous Earth
    A deposit composed primarily of the tests of diatoms mixed with clay.

    AKA diatomite
  141. Evaporite Mineral
    A sedimentary deposit that is left behind when water evaporates.
  142. Foraminifer
    An order of planktonic and benthic protozoans that possess protective coverings, usually composed of calcium carbonate.
  143. Gas Hydrate
    Forms in HIGH pressure - LOW temperature environments.
  144. Glacial Deposit
    A sedimentary deposit formed by a glacier.

    Poor sorting
  145. Ice Rafting
    Movement of trapped sediment within or on top of ice by flotation.
  146. Limestone
    • A class of sedimentary rocks...
    • At least 80% carbonates of calcium or magnesium.
    • Either hydrogenous or biogenous.
  147. Lysocline
    • The level in the ocean at which calcium carbonate begins to dissolve.
    • Below: CaCO3 dissolves at an increasing rate with increasing depth until CCD is reached.
  148. Manganese Nodule
    A concretionary lump containing oxides of manganese.....scattered over the ocean floor.
  149. Methane Hydrate
    A white compact icy solid made of water and methane.

    Most common type of gas hydrate
  150. Microscopic Biogenous Sediment
  151. Nannoplankton
    Plankton less than 50 micrometers in length that cannot be caught in a plankton net and must be removed by special filters.
  152. Neritic Deposit
    The sediment composed primarily of lithogenous particles and deposited relatively rapidly on the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise.
  153. Oolite
    Deposit formed of small spheres
  154. Ooze
    A pelagic sediment containing at least 30% skeletal remains of pelagic organisms, the balance being clay minerals.
  155. Pelagic Deposit
  156. Phosphate
    Any number of phosphorus-bearing compounds.
  157. Phosphorite
    A sedimentary rock composed primarily of phosphate minerals.
  158. Protozoa
    A class of one-celled animals w/ nuclear material confined within a nuclear sheath.
  159. Quartz
    A very hard mineral composed of silica (SiO2).
  160. Radiolaria
    An order of planktonic and benthic protozoans that possess protective coverings usually made of silica.
  161. Red Clay
    AKA abyssal clay
  162. Rotary Drilling
  163. Silica
    • Silicon dioxide
    • SiO2
  164. Siliceous Ooze
  165. Spherule
    A cosmogenous microscopic globular mass composed of silicate rock material (tektites) or of iron and nickel.
  166. Stromatolite
    A calcium carbonate sedimentary structure in which algal assemblages trap sediment and bind it into forms that are often dome shaped.
  167. Tektite
    A cosmogenous microscopic globular mass composed of silicate rock material (tektites) or of iron and nickel.

    AKA spherule
  168. Terrigenous Sediment
    Sediment produced from or of the Earth.
  169. Upwelling
    The process by which deep, cold, nutrient-laden water id brought to the surface, usually by diverging equatorial currents or coastal currents that pull water away from a coast.
  170. Wentworth Scale
    Wentworth Scale of Grain Size: A logarithmic scale for size classification of sediment particles.
  171. Oceans
    • Pacific
    • Atlantic
    • Indian
    • Arctic
    • Antarctic or Southern
  172. Pacific Ocean Characteristics
    • Largest
    • Deepest
  173. Atlantic Ocean Characteristics
    Second Largest
  174. Indian Ocean Characteristics
    Mainly in Southern Hemisphere
  175. Arctic Ocean Characteristics
    • Smallest
    • Shallowest
    • Ice-Covered
  176. Antarctic or Southern Ocean Characteristics
    • Connects to Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian
    • South of about 50 (degrees) Latitude

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