Nutrition test 1.txt

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hollyeb
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196206
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Nutrition test 1.txt
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2013-01-28 21:15:42
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digestive system
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digestive system
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  1. Five functions of the digestive system
    • 1. Ingestion
    • 2. Mastication
    • 3. Digestion
    • 4. Absorption
    • 5. Elimination
  2. Seven parts of the digestion system
    • 1. Mouth
    • 2. Pharynx
    • 3. Esophagus
    • 4. Stomach
    • 5. Small intestine
    • 6. Large intestine
    • 7. Accessory glands
  3. Three types of accessory glands
    • 1. Salivary glands
    • 2. Liver
    • 3. Pancreas
  4. Four layers of the digestive tract
    • 1. Mucosa (inside)
    • 2. Sub-mucosa
    • 3. Muscle
    • 4. Serosa (outside)
  5. Incisors
    • Front teeth
    • Numbered from center of mouth
  6. Canine
    • Eye teeth
    • Bridle teeth
    • Tusks
    • Normally absent in the mare, gelding & ruminant
    • Wolf teeth of young horse
  7. Premolars
    Cheek teeth
  8. Molars
    Cheek teeth
  9. Brachydont
    • Short crown
    • Canine
    • Feline
  10. Hypsodont
    • Long crown
    • Herbivores
    • Grow continuously
  11. Four types of taste receptors
    • 1. Filiform
    • 2. Fungiform
    • 3. Circumvallate
    • 4. Foliate
  12. Filiform
    • Hair like in appearance
    • Give horses tongue velvety feel
  13. Fungiform
    • Shaped like toadstool
    • Contain taste buds
  14. Foliate
    • Resemble leaves
    • Contain taste buds
  15. Circumvallate
    Large circular projection surrounded by deep groove
  16. Hard palate
    • Forms roof of mouth
    • "Lampers" in house is inflammation of the mucosa of hard palate
  17. Soft palate
    • Directly behind hard palate
    • Separates mouth from pharynx
    • Elongated soft palate causes snoring
  18. What are tonsils made of?
    Lymphoid tissue
  19. Three types of lymphoid tissue
    • 1. Palatine
    • 2. Lingual
    • 3. Pharyngeal
  20. Palatine
    • Seen most in canine and human
    • Lack membrane covering tonsils, causes tonsillitis
  21. Lingual
    • Seen most in horse, cow & pig
    • Located at base of tongue
  22. Pharyngeal
    Enlargement of these are called adenoids
  23. Pharynx
    • Common passageway for food and air
    • Includes mouth, 2 nares, 2 Eustachian tubes, esophagus, & larynx
  24. Esophagus
    • Muscular tune extending from the pharynx to the stomach
    • Dorsal to trachea
  25. Simple stomach
    Located behind the left side of the diaphragm
  26. Epithelium surface of stomach
    Gastric pits
  27. Folds in stomach
    Rugae folds
  28. Cardiac glands
    • Closest to cardia
    • Produce mucus
  29. Pyloric glands
    • Located in pylorus region
    • Produce mucus & gastrin
  30. Gastrin
    • Hormone that stimulates release of HCl & formation of pepsin
    • Aids in release of pancreatic enzymes & gall bladder contraction
  31. Fundic glands
    • Located in remainder of stomach
    • Contain parietal cells & chief cells
  32. Parietal cells
    Produce HCl which split pepsinogen to form pepsin
  33. Pepsin
    Main component of digestive juices
  34. Chief cells
    Produce pepsinogen & rennin
  35. Rennin
    Breaks down milk
  36. Parts of the ruminant stomach
    • 1. Rumen
    • 2. Reticulum
    • 3. Omasum
    • 4. Abomasum
  37. Rumen
    • Largest
    • Huge storage vat
    • Fermentation of feed
    • Involves cuddling & bloat
  38. Reticulum
    • Most cranial compartment
    • Closest to heart
    • "Honeycomb"
    • Involves "Hardware Disease" or traumatic reticular pericarditis
    • Main digestive function in young calves
  39. Omasum
    • Located to right of rumen & caudal to liver
    • Grinds roughage before entering abomasum
    • Aka "book" stomach
  40. Abomasum
    • True stomach
    • Where digestion begins
    • Located ventral to omasum on caudal side of rumen
    • Involves twisted stomach
  41. Small intestine parts
    • 1. Duodenum
    • 2. Jejunum
    • 3. ileum
  42. Duodenum
    • Proximal portion of small intestine
    • Ducts from the pancreas & liver enter here to excrete enzymes to aid in digestion
  43. Jejunum
    Central portion of small intestine
  44. ileum
    Distal portion of small intestine
  45. Where are most nutrients absorbed?
    Small intestines
  46. Most animals have sort large intestine except the _____?
    Horse
  47. Large intestine includes
    • 1. Cecum
    • 2, colon
  48. Equine large intestine includes
    • 1. Cecum
    • 2. Right ventral colon
    • 3. Sternal flexure
    • 4. Left ventral colon
    • 5. Pelvic flexure
    • 6. Left dorsal colon
    • 7. Diaphragmatic flexure
    • 8. Right dorsal colon
    • 9. Transverse colon
    • 10. Small colon
    • 11. Rectum
    • 12. Anus
  49. Crypts of Lieberkuhn
    • Located between villi
    • Secrete mucus in S.I.
    • Secrete enzyme enteeokinase
  50. Enterokinase enzyme
    Activates pancreatic secretion of trypsinogen & small amount of amylase
  51. Brunner's glands
    • Located in duodenum
    • Secrete mucus for moisture
  52. Peyer's Patches
    Lymph nodules located in ileum
  53. Auerbach's Plexus
    Nerve supply for intestinal tract
  54. Salivary glands include
    • 1. Parotid
    • 2. Mandibular
    • 3. Submandibular
  55. Pancreas
    • Lobulated organ located between liver, kidneys & stomach
    • Has exocrine & endocrine functions
  56. Exocrine of pancreas
    Sodium bicarbonate & digestive enzymes into duodenum
  57. Endocrine of pancreas includes
    • 1. Alpha cells
    • 2. Beta cells
    • 3. Delta cells
    • Aka Islets of Langerhans
  58. Alpha cells
    • Secrete glucagons
    • Elevates blood sugar
  59. Beta cells
    • Secrete insulin
    • Affects metabolism of carbs, proteins & fats
  60. Delta cells
    • Secrete somatostatin
    • Thought to inhibit secretion of glucagon & insulin
    • Acts as buffer
  61. Pancreatic amylase
    Breaks down starch
  62. Pancreatic lipase
    Breaks down fats
  63. Pancreatic trypsinogen
    Breaks down protein
  64. Trypsin digestion test
    • Test for protein absorption
    • When protein is absorbed, trypsinogen is produced
    • Test will eat X-ray film when trypsinogen is present
  65. Normal fasting glucose
    80-120
  66. Hypoglycemic
    60
  67. Liver
    • Filtration device
    • Waste removal
    • Storage for blood & fat
    • Filters food & meds
    • Contains lobes
  68. Rumenal bloat / Rumenal Tympany
    • Located in paralumbar fossa
    • First sign is rubbing against tree or barn
    • Painful, difficulty breathing
    • Pass nasal gastric tube to remove gas, contents & or replace with meds
  69. Colic in horses
    Treat with gastric tube, mineral oil, pain reliever or surgery as last resort
  70. Herbivore teeth
    • Don't have upper incisors
    • Have dental pad
    • Flat teeth that grow continuously
    • ie: horses, cows
  71. Carnivore teeth
    • Sharp, pointy teeth for shearing & tearing
    • ie: cat
  72. Omnivore teeth
    • Not as sharp, pointy
    • Not as substantial
    • ie: dog
  73. When do calves start to ruminate?
    About 3 weeks of age
  74. Dog and cat teeth growth
    • Deciduous: 3-4 weeks old
    • Permanent: 4-6 months old
  75. Cows teeth growth
    • Deciduous: 8 days old
    • Permanent: 18 months old to 4 years old
  76. Horse teeth growth
    • Deciduous: 8 days, 8 weeks, 8 months old
    • Permanent: 2 1/2, 3 1/2, 4 1/2, & 5 years old

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