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2013-01-30 16:40:47

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  1. Describe four processes and one physical characterless of life:
    • Growth- increase in size
    • Reproduction- increase in Number
    • Responsiveness- change internal or external properties in reaction to environment 
    • Metabolism- ability to take in nutrients from outside themselves
  2. What is cell theory and when was it proposed by Schwann and Schleiden?
    • All living things are composed of cells 
    • 1800's
  3. Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Give examples
    • Prokaryotes:
    • no nucleus
    • no membrane
    • 1-2 mm
    • domain archea, bacteria
    • Eukaryotes:
    • nucleus
    • numerous bounded organelles
    • plants, animals, algea, fungi, protozoa
    • 10-100 mm
  4. Describe the structure and function of the following external structure of prokaryotic cells:
    a) Glycocalyces
    b) Flagella
    C) Fimbriae
    d) pili
    • a) form capsule, slim layer, important in survival & attachment
    • b) for motility, movement
    • c) sticky, bristle-like projections, study biofilm
    • d) used for conjugation- transfer DNA to another cell
  5. What are the functions of the bacterial cell wall?
    provides structure and shape and protects from osmotic forces
  6. Three primary shapes of most bacteria, and what G+ and G- stain colors?
    • cocci- 
    • Rods- Bacilli
    • Spiral
    • G-  pink
    • G+ purple
  7. Describe the structure of the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall.
    • composed of two types of regularly alternating sugar molecules called NAG and NAM
    • covalently linked sugars
    • covers entire surface of cell
  8. How do acid-fast bacteria such as Mycobacteria differ from other Gram positive bacteria?
    • Myco lacks a cell wall
    • Gram positive are thicker
  9. Why are Gram negative bacteria harder to kill with some antibiotics?What is the importance of Lipid A in the LPS of the outer membrane?
    • The outer layer is composed of LPS and Lipid A is in there and its endotoxin released by dead cells prevents movement of antibiotic.
    • "outer membrane prevents movement of drugs"
  10. Do all bacteria have cell walls?
    no, Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  11. Describe the structure of prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes.
    • two layer structure.
    •  gel-like, yet fluid, substance in which all of the other cellular components are suspended.
  12. How do archaeal membranes differ from bacterial membranes?
    • bacterial- contain peptidoglycan
    • archael - no peptidoglycan, different lipids, contain isoprene "lacks phosphate group"
  13. Describe the function of Prokaryotic membrane.
    controls what gets into and out of the cells
  14. 3 types of passive transport?
    • simple diffusion- oxygen, carbon dioxide, lipid soluble
    • facilitated diffusion-glucose, fructose, urea, vitamins
    • osmosis- water
  15. 2 types of active transport?
    • active transport- Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-
    • Group Translocation- Glucose, mannose, fructose
  16. Describe the cytoplasm of Prokaryotes including the Cytosol and Inclusions
    • Cytosol- liquid portion, mostly water with ions, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and wastes. contains DNA
    • Inclusions- reserve deposits of lipids, starch , nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur found within bacterial cytosol
  17. describe the structure and function of endospores. Give 2 examples of bacteria that can produce endospores.
    • defense against hostile or unfavorable conditions
    • Gram-positive genera
    • Bacillus
    • Clostridium
  18. Describe the structure of and importance of bacterial ribosomes.
    • sites of protein synthesis in cells.
    • composed of polypeptides  adn a single rRNA molecule
  19. Describe the structure and function of the eukaryotic glycocalyx. What kinds of cells have a glycocalyx?
    helping anchor animal cells to each other, strengthening the cell surface, providing some protection against dehydration.
  20. Compare the cell walls of different types of eukaryotic cells.
    • Glycocalyces are absent from eukaryotes with cell walls.
    • walls of plant cells are composed of cellulose, polysaccharide
    • Fungi- polysaccharides, cellulose, chitin, glucomannan
    • algae- polysaccharides, adn chemicals
  21. List the evidence supporting the endosymbiotic theory.
    • contain their own circular DNA and 70s ribosomes
    • 2 bilipid membranes
    • not universally accepted