Biology Exam Review 2012

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Biology Exam Review 2012
2013-01-28 22:42:52
merp exam

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  1. List the characteristics of living things (organisms)
    • exchange with the environment 
    • takes in nutrients, gases, water, etc
    • gives back solid, liquid, gaseous wastes 
    • grow
    • change in physical size 
    • maturation (internal changes that make infant -> adult)
    • reproduce 
    • make offspring 
    • organization 
    • all parts + processes work together for the benefit of the entire organism 
    • movement
    • physical movement 
    • internal movement 
    • respond to stimuli
    • for protection  + day to day functions
    • (sense&hormones)
    • metabolism
    • chemical process convert nutrients to energy
  2. Name the six kingdoms 
    • Eubacteria
    • Archaebacteria
    • Protista 
    • Fungi 
    • Plantae
    • Animalia 
    • (virus aren't classified into any kingdoms)
  3. List the characteristics of Eubacteria 
    • prokaryotic cells
    • can be autotrophic or heterotrophic 
    • unicelluar 
    • reproduce asexually (most)
    • live near everywhere 

    ex. bacteria, cyanobacteria 
  4. List the characteristics of Archaebacteria 
    • prokaryotic 
    • live in extreme, conditions (salt springs, hot springs, animal guts) 

    ex. methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles
  5. List the characteristics of Protista 
    • most are unicellular but some are multicellular 
    • most are prokaryotic but some are eukaryotic 
    • some autotrophic, some heterotrophic, some both
    • reproduced sexually or asexually 
    • all live in aquatic environments

    ex. algae, amoeba, euglena, paramecium
  6. List the characteristics of Fungi 
    • most are multicellular 
    • all are heterotrophic 
    • reproduce sexually or asexually 
    • most are terrestrial 
    • feed off of dead organic material 

    ex. mushrooms, mould, yeast 
  7. List the characteristics of Plantae 
    • all are multicellular 
    • all are autotrophic (photosynthesis)
    • reproduce sexually or asexually 
    • most are terrestrial 

    • ex. mosses, ferns, contifers, flowering plants
  8. List the characteristics of Animalia 
    • all are multicellular 
    • mobile 
    • all heterotrophic 
    • most reproduce sexually 
    • live in aquatic + terrestrial environments

    ex. sponges, worms, insects, birds, humans
  9. What are the Levels of Classification ? 
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    • Kingdom                       Animalia
    • Phylum                         Chordata 
    • Class                             Mammalia 
    • Order                            Primates 
    • Family                           Hominidae
    • Genus                           Homo
    • Species                         Sapiens
  10. What are characteristics and examples of viruses ?
    • shows some signs of life in a living system 
    • considered subcellular (no nucleus, no cytoplasm, no membranes)
    • have either RNA or DNA but never both 
    • 2 types
    • DNA virus
    • Retrovirus (RNA virus)
    • viruses are parasitic 
    • most are harmless - only some are pathogenic 

    • classified through the host they invade
    • plant virus, animal virus, bacterial virus

    • ex. herpes virus, cold virus. 
  11. Describe the steps for Viral Replication 
    (basically lytic cycle)
    • 1. Attachment & entrance
    • the virus chemically recognizes a host cell and attaches (either the whole virus or only the DNA or RNA material enter's the cell's cytoplasm)

    • 2.Synthesis of protein & nucleic acids units:
    • molecular information within the DNA or RNA material directs the host cells to replicate viral components (nucleic acids, enzymes, capsid proteins& other viral proteins)

    • 3. Assembly of the units
    • the viral nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, are brought together to form new virus particles

    4. Release of new virus particles: the newly made virus particles are released from the host cell- which dies. 
  12. List the different symbiotic relationships of bacteria and an example of each. 
    • Mutalism 
    • relationship that benefits both of the organisms involved 

    ex. rhizobium 

    • Commensalism
    • relationship that benefits only one partner with no effect on the other

    ex. E coli 

    • Parasitism 
    • a relationship that benefits one partner and the other (host) is harmed

    ex. "Lockjaw"
  13. Describe Asexual reproduction of bacteria 
    • usually through binary fission 
    • (similar to mitosis but is simpler)
    • under ideal conditions- cell can reproduce every 20 min 
    • in lab- cells are grown into colonies using growth medium (agar)
  14. Describe sexual reproduction of bacteria 
    • 3 types :
    • Conjugation
    • Dna segment is tranfered from one bacterial cell to another through specialized structures called pilli. 
    • (a bridge forms between two cells & transfers one DNA into the other)

    • Transformation
    • a segement of DNA from a dead bacterium is "picked up" and incorporated into the DNA of the living bacterium 
    • this transforms the bacterium's ability to function 

    • Transduction
    • requires the activity of a bacteriophage (virus) to transfer host DNA to new bacterial cells
    • works best if new host is immune to the phage 
    • virus incorporates new DNAs then it is passed on to the offspring
  15. Classification of bacteria based on oxygen demand
    • Obligate Aerobes
    • must have oxygen 
    • use oxygen for cellular respiration (energy)
    • some of the species can cause TB and diptheria

    • Obligate Anaerobes
    • grow only where there is no oxygen 
    • include many species of bacillus species that live in soil 
    • responsible for tetanus gangrene, botulism

    • Facultative Anaerobes
    • can grow with or without oxygen but grows best with oxygen
    • majority of bacterial species
    • ex. N- fixing bacteria 

    • Facultative Aerobes
    • can live with or without oxygen but best without oxygen 
  16. What are the three main groups of protists ?
    • Plant-like Protists
    • contain chlorophyll -> photosynthesis
    • traditionally called algae *
    • variations in reproduction 
    • *most reproduce asexually by binary fission 
    • also reproduce by fragmentation (asexual) or conjugation (sexual)

    • Animal-like Protists
    • heterotrophic 
    • * some engulf their food and others absorb it
    • are classified by their type of movements, organelles, life cycle or nutrition
    • reproduction is usually asexually (binary fission)
    • many animal protists form cyst (dormancy)

    • Fungi-like Protists
    • are referred to as slime moulds
    • get energy from obtaining available nutrients and carrying out metabolic activities
    • *chemical reactions
  17. Differences between asexual and sexual reproduction in genetics
    • asexual
    • 1 parent
    • no special reproductive organs needed
    • occurs in unicellular organisms & simple plants+animals
    • offspring are identical to parent 
    • very efficent (large # in little amount of time)
    • involves cell division by mitosis

    • Sexual
    • 2 parents
    • involves union of two "sex cells" called gametes
    • occurs in complex, multicellular organisms
    • offspring are similar but not identical
    • involves cell division by meiosis, followed by mitosis 
    • introduces variation
  18. What is the value of variation ?
    increases the possibility that individuals may be better adapted to changes in the environment 
  19. What is mitosis ?
    Mitosis is a process of cell division where the genetic material in the nucleus duplicates, divides and produces two identical daughter cells

    • Prophase
    • nuclear membrane disappears
    • spindle fibers begin to form 
    • thin chromatin (DNA) thicken & become chromosomes
    • chromosomes double

    • Metaphase
    • double-stranded chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the cell

    • Anaphase
    • spindle fibres shorten& pull chromosomes apart
    • each chromosome begins to move to opposite poles

    • Telophase
    • one complete set of chromosomes lies at each pole
    • spindle fibres disappear
    • nuclear membrane reappears, forming 2 nuclei
    • Cytokinesis (pinching of cell membrane) or cell wall = 2 daughter cells
  20. What consists of the cell cycle ?
    • Interphase (90%)
    • cell carries out normal activites
    • *cell growth, making proteins, and DNA replication 
    • DNA must be replicated 

    • Mitosis (10%)
  21. What is the difference between chromatin, chromosomes, and chromatid ?
    • Chromatin
    • when the cell is in interphase, DNA exists in longthread-like structures 
    • (looks like squiggles)

    • Chromosomes
    • prior to cell division, DNA is wound up into these short, compact, rod-like structures 

    • Chromatid
    • term used to describe two duplicated sister chromosomes at the start of mitosis to seperation during anaphase. 
    • (joined by centromere)
  22. What is the function of meiosis and how does it compare to mitosis ? 
    • process by which sex cells (gametes) are formed. 
    • has 8 stages (Prophase I, Prophase II, etc ..)
    • accomplishes major changes:
    • crossing-over
    • random assortment (Anaphase I)
    • and reduction division (2n -> n)

    • doesn't create identical daughter cells,
    • has more stages, crossing-over, tetrads, amount of chromosome is halfed, end up with haploid cells. 
  23. What are the methods of variation ?
    • crossing-over
    • pieces of DNA are exchanged between the homologous chromosomes
    • random assortment
    • when the paternal& maternal homologous chromosomes are split apart, they are randomly pulled to a pole (Anaphase I)

    combination of gametes at fertilization 

  24. What is the theory of natural selection ?
    • considered one of the basic mechanisms of evolution that believes life forms have evolved gradually.
    • Because species produce more offspring than can survive, there is a competition for survival. Nature selects the fittest that deserve to live and selects certain traits over others.