Antibiotics

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Author:
desaix
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196232
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Antibiotics
Updated:
2013-02-07 22:28:58
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Antibiotics
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Antibiotics
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  1. Amoxicillin
    • Penicillin - cidal, b-lactam
    • -Amox - gas, gbs, coliforms, h.flu
    • -ampicillin - enterococcus, gram neg, h. flu
    • -piperacillin - some negative, pseudomonas
    • -cloxacillin -staph aureus
  2. Meropenem
    • Carbapenems - broadest spectrum
    • +/-/anaerobes
    • -Extended spectrum B-lactamases (ESBLs)
    • -B-lactam, cidal
  3. Gentamicin
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Bacteriostatic - inhibits 30S ribosome -> leaky cell
    • -nephrotoxic, ototoxic
    • -resistant GN, chlamydia, coliforms
  4. Doxycycline
    • Tetracyclines - static - 30S ribosome
    • GP (exc. enterococcus), mycoplasma, chlamydia, syphillis
    • AE: stains teeth (children), pregnancy
  5. Azithromycin
    • Macrolides - Static, Bind 50S
    • -GI Intolerance
    • -CAP - H.flu, GP/GN/Aerobes/Anaerobes/mycoplasma
    • -Erythromycin - mycoplasma, legionella
  6. Clindamycin
    • Lincosamides - binds 23S of 50S interrupts tRNA
    • -anerobes, protozoa (malaria), acne, mrsa
    • AE: C. DIFF!
  7. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole
    • Sulfonamide - bactericide/bacteriostatic
    • -anti-folic acid-> decreased dna synth
    • -broad spectrum
    • -pneumocystis, utis, gn aerobic bacili
    • -inhibits cyp2c9 - glyburide -> increase insulin
  8. Metronidazole
    • nitroimidazole (flagyl) - bacterocidal, targets dna
    • -anerobic, protozoa
    • -C. diff, rosacea, fungating tumors, h.pylori
    • -amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia
    • AE: alcohol -> nausea/vomiting
  9. Ciprofloxacin
    • Fluoroquinolones - bind dna/dna gyrase -> cell death
    • -most overused class
    • -avoid in kids/pregnancy
    • -gn, pseudomonas, some +
    • -h flu/pneumo/mycoplasm/chlamydia/legionella
  10. Cephalexin (Keflex)
    Cephazolin (Ancef)
    • First Generation Cephalosporin
    • NO Anaerobes
    • NO LAME - Listeria, Atypical (Myco, Chlamydia), MRSA, Enterococcus
    • Mostly GP coverage, some GN
    • -staph, strep, PEcK (Proteus, E coli, Klebsiella)
  11. Cefonicid (Monocid)
    Cefuroxime
    2nd Generation Cephalosporin

    • -less GP than 1st Gen
    • -More GN: HEN (H. Flu, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria), PEcK
  12. Cefixime (Suprax)
    Ceftriaxone
    3rd Gen Cephalosporins

    • -less GP coverage
    • -hospital acquired infections: GNs
    • -ESBLs reduce utility of 3rd gen
    • -meningitis (penetrate cns) - pneumococci, meningococci, h. flu, e. coli, klebsiella
    • -only recommended for N. gonorrhea
  13. Cefepime
    Cefpirome
    • 4th Gen Cephalosporins
    • -increased GP coverage
    • -increased resistance to B-lactamases
    • -crosses bbb - meningitis
    • -Pseudomonas
  14. Beta-lactam Antibiotics
    Penicllin binding proteins - transglycosylate and transpeptidation of the bacterial cell wall

    -beta-lactams bind to PBPs -> activates bacterial autolysis enzymes

    • 1 Penicilins
    • 2 Cephalosporins
    • 3 Carbapenems
    • 4 Monobactams
  15. Vancomycin
    • -glycopeptide antibiotic
    • -binds D-ala on wall ->cidal
    • IV/IM

    • -GP only, extracellular only
    • -drug of last resort, for MRSA, Pseudomembranous colitis (C.diff); breeds VRE (enterococcus)

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