Nutrition 1020

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Nutrition 1020
2013-01-28 23:02:53

Vitamins, Minerals, and Water 1.5
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  1. The Vitamins
    • • Some vitamins are essential.
    • • Without an intake of, nutritional deficiencies occur.
    • • Vitamins are organic compounds.
    • • They contain the element carbon.
    • • All vitamins are noncaloric.
    • • All vitamins are needed in tiny amounts for cell metabolism
    • • microgram (μg, mcg, ug) or
    • • milligram (mg) amounts

    As compared to gram amounts for carbohydrates, proteins and fats
  2. Functions of Vitamins
    • In cell chemistry or metabolism.

    • Enzymes are protein based molecules that catalyze chemical reactions (drive metabolism).

    • Vitamins & minerals can function as specific cofactors for specific enzymes.

    • Many enzymes require a partner called a cofactor or coenzyme to function.
  3. Enzymes & Cofactors in Metabolism
    • Examples:
    • The vitamin folate is a cofactor for the enzyme homocysteine transmethylase.

    The mineral selenium is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase.
  4. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  5. Water Soluble Vitamins
    • Thiamin
    • B6
    • B12
    • Riboflavin
    • Niacin
    • Folate
    • Pantothenic Acid
    • Biotin
    • Vitamin C
    • Choline
  6. Vitamins
    • Other compounds have vitamin activity in animals, but deficiencies have not been shown in humans.

    • The aforementioned vitamins are essential in human nutrition.
  7. Minerals
    • • Some minerals are essential.
    • • Without an intake of, nutritional deficiencies occur.
    • • All minerals are elements.
    • • All minerals are inorganic substances.
    • » this is because minerals are unique elements and are not compounds containing carbon.
    • • All minerals are non-caloric
    • • All minerals are needed in tiny amounts for cellular metabolism and structure
    • – Microgram (μg)
    • – Milligram (mg) amounts
  8. Periodic Table of the Elements:

    Nutritional Application for Essential Minerals
    Major Minerals: Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na),Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Sulfur (S)

    Trace Minerals: Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Iodine (I), Selenium (Se), Chromium (Cr),Molybdenum (Mo), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Fluoride (F), Cobalt (Co).
  9. Functions of Minerals
    • The majority of minerals in the human body play a structural role.

    • Also as cofactors of enzymes in metabolism.

    • Structural such as calcium in bone structure and as integral components of proteins such as iron & hemoglobin or iodine & thyroxin.
  10. Water Follows Electrolytes
    Water & Body fluid regulation by the electrolytes:

    Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
  11. pH Scale
    Some minerals help maintain acid-base balance
  12. The Chemistry of Buffers
    The bicarbonate/carbonic acid buffer system starts with sodium bicarbonate dissociated in water,

    When acid such as hydrochloric acid is added,

    The sodium & chloride electrically balance each other,

    The bicarbonate combines with the hydrogen to yield carbonic acid,

    Being unstable, carbonic acid releases carbon dioxide,which is expelled in the breath. Water remains.
  13. Categories of Minerals
    • There are 17 minerals essential for proper growth & function of the human body.

    • Minerals are categorized as Major & Trace.

    • The category is based on the amount of mineral present in the human body.
  14. Major Minerals
    • Found in the adult reference male body in quantities greater than 5 grams.

    Bone: Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P),Magnesium (Mg)

    Water: Sodium (Na), Chloride (Cl),Potassium (K)

    Lean Body Mass (LBM): Sulfur (S)
  15. Trace Minerals
    • Found in the adult reference male body in quantities less than or equal to 5 grams

    • Include: Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Iodine (I),Selenium (Se), Chromium (Cr), Molybdenum(Mo), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn),Fluoride (F), and Cobalt (Co)
  16. Other Minerals
    • • Other minerals are found in the human body but are not recognized as essential. For example:
    • » Nickel is a structural requirement for some metalloenzymes.

    » Boron has recently been shown to function in calcium metabolism.

    » Silicon, tin, vanadium and cadmium are found in the human body but no metabolicrole has been identified.
  17. Water
    • • Non-Energy Yield: Water provides 0 Calories/gram. !
    • • Functions: Water is the medium for metabolism & nutrient transport.
    • • It is the fluid of life.
    • • Without water intake, dysfunction to death will occur faster than the limitation of any other of the essential nutrients in human nutrition.
  18. Water:Recommended Intake
    • • There is no “one-size-fits-all”water intake recommend.
    • – Needs vary depending on activity & environmental conditions.
    • • For water balance:
    • – Consume 1 ml water/Calorie expended.
    • – This is not an optimal level of water intake.
    • • DRI for water for those >19 years:
    • – Men: 3.7 L/day (approx. 15 cups)
    • – Women: 2.7 L/day (approx. 11 cups)
  19. Water: Excretion
    • • Most body waste is excreted in the urine.
    • • Kidneys excrete more efficiently into dilute urine.
    • • Drinking fluid promotes the excretion of toxic metabolic waste products.
    • • Strive to consume enough fluids to produce clear urine every few hours.
  20. Water Mechanisms
    • Thirst mechanisms do not provide motivation to drink until an individual is 2% dehydrated.

    • At this point, the function of the cardiovascular system is decreased.

    • Thus, individuals need to learn to drink when they are not thirsty.