NUR210CH03

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Author:
TomWruble
ID:
196236
Filename:
NUR210CH03
Updated:
2013-03-17 12:14:41
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nur210q1 Biological basis understanding psychotropic drugs
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Biological basis for understanding psychotropic drugs
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  1. A client receiving a psychotropic drug reports to the nurse that he is drowsy all the time and is having difficulty focusing his attention. The nurse will correctly interpret this symptom as related to the drug's effect on the brain's ability to regulate


    A) mood
    B) memory
    C) sleep
    D) thought
    C) sleep

    A number of psychotropic drugs have side effects that interfere with the brain's ability to regulate sleep alertness. These side effects range from lethargy to extreme drowsiness. As the client's body becomes accustomed to the drug, the drowsiness should dissipate. Text page: 48
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. A client's communication is marked by loose associations and word salad. Dysfunction of which portion of the brain is responsible for these symptoms?

    A) Cerebrum
    B) Cerebellum
    C) Brainstem
    D) Basal ganglia
    A) Cerebrum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. On the basis of the current understanding of neurotransmitters, the nurse can view a client's symptoms of profound depression as likely related in part to

    A) decreased acetylcholine level
    B) increased norepinephrine level
    C) increased dopamine level
    D) decreased serotonin level
    D) decreased serotonin level

    A lowered serotonin level is highly supported as being related to depression; however, depression is more probably influenced by a number of neurotransmitter abnormalities. Text pages: 58, 59
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. A nursing assistant shares with the nurse that a client with schizophrenia is as difficult to communicate with as," someone with Alzheimer's." The nurse offers the following advice:

    A) "Try talking to him early in the day to get the best results. Fatigue disorganizes his thinking."
    B) "Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease both cause irreversible brain damage, so keep your conversations short when you talk to a client with either disorder."
    C) "His medication targets his disturbed thought and speech patterns. To maximize improvement he will need positive interactions and support."
    D) "Make sure he eats the comfort foods he is served because they increase serotonin production and will help normalize his thoughts and speech."
    C) "His medication targets his disturbed thought and speech patterns. To maximize improvement he will need positive interactions and support."

    This response will help the nursing assistant understand that improvement can be expected in the client's condition, and that this improvement can be maximized by therapeutic interactions with staff. It establishes the expectation that the nursing assistant will interact in a therapeutic manner. Text page: 46
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The nurse caring for a client taking risperidone (Risperidal) observes the client carefully for:

    A. a rapid heartbeat, red rash and hives.
    B. napping during the day, a weight gain, and reports of dizziness.
    C. reports of falls, heartburn and nausea.
    D. dry mouth, poor urinary output, and constipation.
    B. napping during the day, a weight gain, and reports of dizziness.

    H1 blockade has the potential to produce sedation, weight gain, and hypotension.Text page: 70
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. When the nurse cares for a client taking an antipsychotic medication that blocks muscarinic receptors, the nurse would assess for:

    A. orthostatic hypotension and memory dysfunction.
    B. tremors, tachycardia, and ejaculatory dysfunction.
    C. sedation, drowsiness, hypotension, and weight gain.
    D. blurred vision, dry mouth, and constipation.
    D. blurred vision, dry mouth, and constipation.

    Anticholinergic effects are the effects produced by atropine: dry mouth, dry eyes, blurred vision, constipation, and urinary retention.Text page: 69
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The nurse responsible for the care of a client prescribed clonazepam (klonopin) would evaluate treatment as being successful when the client demonstrates:

    A. improved sleep pattern.
    B. less anxiety.
    C. normal appetite.
    D. reduced auditory hallucinations.
    B. less anxiety.

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is thought to modulate neuronal excitability and anxiety. A drug that increases the effectiveness of γ-aminobutyric acid would result in anxiety reduction.Text pages: 58, 59, 61
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The medication prescribed for a client acts by blocking reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine. The nurse evaluates the treatment as successful when observing: 

    A. Going to his room to 'calm down'
    B. Writes down his telephone number
    C. Laughing at a joke
    D. Exercising a sore shoulder
    C. Laughing at a joke

    Depression is thought to be at least in part caused by lowered levels of serotonin and norepinephrine. Increasing the amount of these transmitters in the brain by blocking reuptake may result in mood elevation.Text page: 63
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. A client is admitted to the hospital with severe depression. The nurse recognizes the possibility that depression may be related to a stress induced hormonal imbalance associated with: 

    A. Cortisol
    B. Luteinizing hormone
    C. Clomipramine
    D. Gronadotropin
    A. Cortisol

    Cortisol is a hormone released during periods of stress.Text page: 47
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Drug used to treat ALL mental illnesses in the 1950s?

    And Uses today?
    Thorazine

    Only psychosis such as schizophrenia, e.g. thorazine works well for 'positive' symptoms, i.e. things that are there that should not be, like hallucinations - as oposed to negative symptoms such as apathy that should be present (in a healthy individual), but is lacking in the mentally ill Pt.
  11. Dopamine (DA)
    • Decrease:
    •     Parkinson's disease
    •     Depression
    • Increase:
    •     SchizophreniaMania

    • Involved in fine muscle movement
    • Involved in integration of emotions and thoughts
    • Involved in decision making
    • Stimulates hypothalamus to release hormones (sex, thyroid, adrenal)
  12. Norepinephrine (NE) (noradrenaline)
    • Decrease:
    •     Depression
    • Increase:
    •     Mania
    •     Anxiety states
    •     Schizophrenia

    • Level in brain affects mood
    • Attention and arousal
    • Stimulates sympathetic branch of autonomic nervous system for "fight orflight" in response to stress
  13. Serotonin (5-HT)
    • Decrease:
    •     Depression
    • Increase:
    •     Anxiety states

    • Plays a role in sleep regulation, hunger, mood states, and pain perception
    • Hormonal activity
    • Plays a role in aggression and sexual behavior
  14. Gamma-aminobutyricacid (GABA)
    • Decrease:
    •     Anxiety disorders
    •     Schizophrenia
    •     Mania
    •     Huntington's disease
    • Increase:
    •     Reduction of anxiety

    • Plays a role in inhibition; reduces aggression, excitation, and anxiety
    • May play a role in pain perception
    • Anticonvulsant and muscle-relaxing properties
    • May impair cognition and psychomotor functioning
  15. Histamines
    • Decrease:
    •     Sedation
    •     Weight gain

    • Involved in alertness
    • Involved in inflammatory response
    • Stimulates gastric secretion
  16. Glutamate
    • Decrease (NMDA):
    •     Psychosis
    • Increase (NMDA):
    •     Prolonged increased state can be neurotoxic
    •     Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer'sdisease
    • Increase (AMPA):
    •     Improvement of cognitive performance in behavioral tasks
  17. Acetylcholine
    • Decrease:
    •     Alzheimer's disease
    •     Huntington's disease
    •     Parkinson's disease
    • Increase:
    •     Depression

    • Plays a role in learning, memory
    • Regulates mood: mania, sexual aggression
    • Affects sexual and aggressive behavior
    • Stimulates parasympathetic nervous system

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