Etto Nan Raan Kein: Chapter 1 & 2
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How much of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean?
How many languages are in Oceania?
ae (currents of ocean), lan (sky) and keiin (plants of land)
Other Names for RMI
- Aelon Kein = ae (currents of ocean), lan (sky) and keiin (plants of land)
- Ralik- Ratak
- driftwood for canoes
- Alvara de Saavedra (1527) noticed islanders using driftwood for canoes
lightweight (also used for styrofoam), used for riwut model canoes
freshwater pools that float above salty water
"Kajoor wut wur"
strength of irooj comes from many people
Lerooj + Kajour/bwidrak
- Irooj father + Kajoor/libwirak
- serves as an irooj edik.
- 2 categories: bwidak or libwidak in ekmouj (aka lajibjib) = offspring of bwidak + kajoor, may also serve as irooj edik
- used to be known also as jib but no longer recognized
special category of kajoor w/ special skills (navigators/warriors/medicine men). Recorded in German publications i 1900s but not since then
senior head of irooj bwij
Terms for Decreasing Land and Royal Blood Lines by Generation: 1st generation
Terms for Decreasing Land and Royal Blood Lines by Generation: 2nd generation
Terms for Decreasing Land and Royal Blood Lines by Generation: 3rd generation
Terms for Decreasing Land and Royal Blood Lines by Generation: 5th generation
Terms for Decreasing Land and Royal Blood Lines by Generation: 4th generation
Terms for Decreasing Land and Royal Blood Lines by Generation: 6th generation
Terms for Decreasing Land and Royal Blood Lines by Generation: 7th generation
also known as rijerbal. "they have the right and bear the responsibility to work the land and to do other duties as directed and delegated by the alap."
Limaro pikpikir kolo eo
limaro = women, pikpikir = shake, kolo = feeling of being challenged. women who urged and supported their brothers to fight.
Kora jeltan bwij
"women unravel threads that bind a family together"
Jined ilo kobo, jemad im jeman ran jet
"Jined" literally means "mother" and "kobo" is the "heat that arises when a mother holds her child close to nurse." The first half of the expression refers to mothers as nurturers. The second half refers to fathers (jemad) and points out that each of our fathers may also be fathers of others. A father's connection to his children may be diminished if he marries another woman and has other children. Our fathers may forget about us but our mothers never will.
Kora in joon jabuk
Literally, this expression refers to women pressing down hard (joon) during fishing method called jabuk, in which a net is used by many people to surround and catch fish. The expression refers to the important role of women to stay home, take care of home duties, and make sure the family remains close and no one is alienated within the family circle
(steerer) Women are compared to the tiller/rudder of a canoe. Women guide children along the right course, and they are expected to discipline and teach the children the proper customs and ways of behaving.
Kora im ajra
(stabilizer) Women provide stability in rough situation. "Ajra" is lightning that comes from the center of the sky and strikes only once. This is usually a sign that weather will improve, even if dark clouds appear everywhere and the wind blows very hard. Once women appear and act, like this type of lightning, things will improve and calm down
Kora in eoeo (kora in tol)
Women are the leaders of the family - the guides who set the family course.
Kora em an kol, mommaan em loman
This expression refers to the competition that arises during social occasions among women (and similarly among men), especially when contributions are expected. The way each person chooses to express herself or himself for a group project or event is Kora em an kol. For example, some people choose to make a minimal, simple contribution, while others might put more thought or effort into theirs.
Lien em jab, irkin maron en
Literally, the expression means that women will not restrict themselves and will give all they can. It is used in the context of contributions, for which women are expected to give certain things like money or handicrafts and competition emerges. This phrase is usually spoken by a woman who plans to give a more elaborate contribution in order to encourage others to be more generous, knowing that women can be very competitive.
Kora ej iep jeltok
"Women are full baskets of food received." This expression refers to the value of women in bringing resources to or expanding the economic base of their family through marriage.
An kora aelon kein
"These islands belong to the women." Women are the solid foundation and calming presence of Marshallese society, and they ensure that the family remains together.
Origins of Jowi: Amata's theory
Errepra, Ijjirik, Rabrib, Kalo, Jejer, Rikuwajleen, Rikibinaelon, Erooja
Origins of Jowi: 6 high chiefs' theory in late 1800s:
Iroja, Ijjirik, Irrebra, Rimwejoor, Ramo, and Riaur
Origins of Jowi: mother of all jowis Liwatoonmour
Only 7 jowi once existed in Ralik, all from Namu. In village of Bojar in the house of Maujenningeang, was a basalt pillar named Liwatoonmour, the mother of all jowi. This pillar carried this name because basalt is not found on coral atolls and the pillar was presumed to have been brought to namu with earliest settlers from Carolines. This "mother" gave birth to the first chief of Ralik. First 7 jowi: Irooj, Ijjirik, a jowi of Liwatoonmour, Riilujennamu, Rikuwajleen, Jeleiut, Rikibinaelonin
- totem, or animal, tree, stone, or plant that served to represent the origins of jowi.
- eg - Rilujennamu are people from Namo, Rokodo are sea people, and Rikuwajleen are people from Kuwajleen.
- Wunenak of Rikuwajleen is a tree named Keiain.
- Totem of Ijjirik was said to be a kind of worm called aman
- Irrebra originated from Namdik and revered the kalo, water bird
term for someone being buried alive
3 categories of land holdings: lamoren (or kapijuknen)
ancestral land inherited from mother
3 categories of land holdings: ninnin
land given by parent to offspring for one generation only
3 categories of land holdings: bwidej
land given by irooj for outstanding service in war and peacetime
- navigational aids, traditional sea markers
eg - when Marshallese sees giant octopus, he knows he is west of Ujae. Manta rays shows he is between Kole and Moneak
fishing method practiced in deepest waters of the ocean during calmer summer months. Fishermen on a canoe would hook a small fish, usually mamo (a type of sardine) on the end of about 200 feet of line to use as bait.
Communal fishing method practiced in deepest waters of the ocean during calmer summer months, irooj required all men in village to participate in order to encircle school of reef fish. Starting in early morning, when tide was beginning to recede, men would surround fish using mwio pulled by canoes to form circle, while others would hit water surface to scare school of fish into trap.
Setting out in early morning or late afternoon, all the men of community would watch and wait while fishing master observed the movement of a selected school of ikaidrik or rainbow runner, marked by a flock of birds following the school. When flock would move to another island, the men would give chase in their canoes, waiting for the fish to swim close to the coral head. Then the fastest swimmers among the would surround the school with the iia, or long rope, and tie the ends together under the water, after which the others would drag the iia to a shallow place on the coral head. The rest of th emen would jump into the water and splash and hit the surface violently, causing the fish to regurgitate their stomach contents and weaken from exertion due to their fear based attempts at escape. The fish were then scooped up with a lacrosse sticke shaped fishing net similar to ookin bobo, this communal method is considered sacred and unique to the southern atolls, particularly Jaluit, and is often accompanied by a chant; Konnak wa. Konnak armej, Konaak aolep men (No one is not involved in this method, and everybody will get his/her share of the catch." Other fishing methods: kottoor, jabuk, ittuur, and bobo.
Warfare Jabonkonaan: Idik tur!
This is a command to get ready for battle. Tur is a bundle of spears. This call means to prepare the bundle of spears for battle.
Warfare Jabonkonaan: Mejal tur!
This is the command to charge or attack. Mejal tur means to untie the bundle of spears and prepare for immediate battle.
Warfare Jabonkonaan: Toorlok bok!
"Massacre them!" This is a battle cry to destroy the enemy and leave no one, not even their relatives, alive on the island.
Warfare Jabonkonaan: Ibeebjauwe
This term describes a serious conflict that results in all out war. When preparing for war, warriors would practice with a mock ibeebjauwe to ready themselves for true battle
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