Systems Analysis & Design
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the SDLC phase during which a thorough study of the organization's related and existing processes procedures and systems is conducted
he individual directly responsible for initiating the development of, and funding the cost of, the system
an interpersonal skill which suggests thaat the analyst can work effectively and easily with all types of people and personalities. In addition to excellent communication skills, the interpersonal skills of an analyst include the ability to question, listen, and observe; effectively conduct oral and written presentations; facilitate groups, and be a team player.
a negative characteristic of a process-centric approach; occurs when the same data are stored in more than one location and/or in more than one form.
an application development approach where the focus is on the data necessary to operate a given software application rather than on what tasks the application is supposed to perform.
decision support system (DSS)
a special type of IS that is designed, built, and used to assist in the activity that it is named for: providing support to the decision process.
activities focused on determining how to transformthe solution into a usable system.
the individuals that will ultimately benefit from the development effort and will be directly involved in either the use of the system itself or the information and reports generated by it.
executive information system (EIS)
a special type of DSS that is uniquely designed to facilitate the analysis of information critical to the overall operation of an organization and to provide an arsenal of tools that can support the strategic decision-making processes conducted by top executives.
expert system (ES)
a computer-based application that employs a set of rules based on human knowledge to solve problems that require human expertise.
general skill set
- the set of skills needed by systems analysts; broken into four basic categories:
- 1. technical
- 2. analytical
- 3. managerial
- 4. interpersonal
the SDLC phase during which the programmers begin their work and the assembly and installation of the physical model of the system takes place. Activities in this phase also include the testing and final installation of the hardware and software, and it it in this phase that the end users are trained in the use of the new system.
the group of individuals who are directly responsible for the management of the IS function within an organization.
limited design stability
one of the most significant negative characteristics of a process-centric approach. Because the entire application is developed to perform a specific set of processes and the data are then gathered and stored in a manner unique to that application, the ability to make changes to the application to accommodate changes in the process or data is limited or possibly untenable.
the SDLC phase during which the logical models of the existing system are revised and refined to correct the sources of the identified business problem and to determine that the proposed, new system functions as expected and addresses the objectives and requirements determined during the analysis phase.
the SDLC phase during which activities focus on detailed modifications to the new system either to correct a problem not discovered during final testing or to effect modifications to reflect changes in the organization's environment.
management information system (MIS)
an extention of the TPS in the sense that it accepts as its input the raw data from a TPS and transforms it into meaningful reports or graphs that are intended to assist managers in the planning and controlling of the business
a multistep approach to the analysis, design, and delivery of an IS that reflects a certain degree of formally specified actions and processes by which the analysis of business problems and the operationalization of their solutions occur.
a design or programming entity that corresponds to the actual thing it represents, such as customers, vendors, contracts, employees, trucks, and money.
object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD)
an analysis and design methodology characterized by the combination of processes and data into a single entity called an object.
office automation system (OAS)
a system that faclitates the analysis and dissemination of information throughout the organization. Familiar aspects of an OAS include word processing, spreadsheets, presentation graphics, and desktop publishing, electronic scheduling and resource allocation, and common methods of inter- and intraoffice communication such as email, voice mail, and videoconferencing.
physical design or development phase
the SDLC phase during which the final logical models are converted into physical specifications that include the detailed specification of the hardware, software, and programming instructions necessary to turn the system into reality.
preliminary investigation phase
the SDLC phase during which the formal identification and selection of a development project and the formal initiation of a preliminary investigation to determine the feasibility of proceeding with the project are conducted.
an analytical skill which suggests that the analyst will follow a prescribed method of taking a large and complex business problem and breaking it into its component parts, analyzing the various aspects of each component, and then assembling a new and hopefully improved system as a solution to the identified problem.
an application development approach in which the focus is promarily on determining what the application is supposed to do.
rapid application development (RAD)
an analysis and design methodology whose basic goal is to create a more parallel approach to the analysis and design effort than that of the SDLC. A key characteristic of RAD is heavy reliance on the use of modern CASE tools and the technique of prototyping.
standards of practice
definitions of conduct, training and certification requirements and accepted standards and guidelines for the analysis and design of a modern IS.
systems analysis activities
activities primarily focused on determining the nature and domain of the business problem and, thus, the characteristics of an appropriate solution for solving it.
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