Bio 2.2 Cell Parts

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pugluv01
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196304
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Bio 2.2 Cell Parts
Updated:
2013-01-30 22:11:00
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labexam1 spring2013 bio22
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Description:
Parts of a cell, structure and function.
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  1. Plasma Membrane
    • Structure:
    • Phospholipids
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Cholesterol

    • Function:
    • Selective barrier that allows passage of nutrients, gasses and wastes into and out of the cell.
    • Maintain correct surface area to volume ratio of the cell.
  2. Cytoplasm
    • Structure:
    • Cytosol
    • Organelles

    Function: Environment for organelles and cell processes to take place and move.
  3. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Structure: 
    • Membranous tubules/sacs called cisternae
    • Proteins

    • Function:
    • Synthesis of lipids.
    • Metabolism of carbohydrates.
    • Detoxification of drugs and poisons.
    • Storage of calcium ions.
  4. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Structure: 
    • Membranous tubules/sacs called cisternae
    • Proteins
    • Ribosomes

    • Function: ·        
    • Protein folding of secreted proteins, membrane proteins, lysosomes and peroxisomes.
    • Attaches carbohydrates to proteins.
    • Creates transport vesicles.
    • Creates membranous phospholipids.
  5. Polysomes
    • Structure: 
    • Multiple ribosomes
    • mRNA

    Function: Allows cells to make many copies of the same polypeptide very quickly during translation.
  6. Golgi Complex
    Structure: Flattened membranous sacs (cisternae)

    • Function:
    • Receives and dispatches transport vesicles.
    • Modifies products received.
    • Creates secretory polysaccharides.
  7. Mitochondria
    • Structure: 
    • 2 Membranes
    • Proteins
    • Intermembrane space/matrix
    • Enzymes
    • DNA
    • Ribosomes

    • Function: 
    • Cellular respiration.
    • Convert solar energy to chemical energy.
  8. Lysosome
    Structure: Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes.

    • Function:
    • Digest macromolecules.
    • Recycle cell's own organic material.
  9. Peroxisome
    • Structure: 
    • Single membrane
    • Enzymes

    • Function: 
    • Remove H^+ atoms from various substrates and transfer them to O_2, creating H_2O_2 (Hydrogen Peroxide)
    • Use O_2 to break down fatty acids (used in cell respiration).
  10. Centrosome
    • Structure: 
    • Microtubules
    • Centrioles (9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring)

    • Function: 
    • Compression resisting girders of the cytoskeleton.
    • Organize microtubules during mitosis.
  11. Cytoskeleton
    • Structure:
    • Microtubules (Thickest): Hollow rods
    • · Wall constructed from the globular protein tubulin dimers.
    • · Shapes/supports the cell
    • · Tracks for motor protein movement
    • · Guide secretory vesicles from Golgi to membrane
    • · Involved in separating chromosomes during cell division.
    • Microfilaments: Solid Rods
    • · Built from actin (globular protein)
    • · Myosin motor protein.
    • · Twisted double chain of actin sub-units.
    • · Structural role to bear tension.
    • · Helps support cell shape.
    • · Creates cleavage furrow during cell division.
    • Intermediate Filaments:
    • · Made of keratin.
    • · Bear tension.
    • · Re-enforce cell shape/organelle position.

    Function: Support and motility of cell.
  12. Cilia/Flagella
    • Structure:
    • Microtubules
    • Membrane
    • Dynein proteins

    • Function: 
    • Movement
    • Move fluid over surface of tissue
    • Receive signals
  13. Nuclear Envelope
    • Structure: 
    • Double membrane
    • Pores
    • Proteins
    • Nuclear lamina (netlike array or protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus)
    • Nuclear matrix (protein fibers)

    Function: Regulate the entry/exit of proteins, RNAs and macromolecules to the nucleus.
  14. Nucleolus
    Structure: Granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin.

    • Function: 
    • Ribosomal RNA synthesized from DNA
    • Form large/small subunits of ribosomes from proteins and rRNA.
  15. Chromatin/Chromosomes
    • Structure: 
    • DNA
    • Histones
    • Proteins

    Function: Carry genetic information.

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