Psychology 1100 chapter one notes/terms

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Psychology 1100 chapter one notes/terms
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2013-01-29 17:37:06
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Notes terms 29 2013
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  1. 1How do hindsight bias, overconfidence, and the tendency to perceive order in
    random events illustrate why science-based answers are more valid than
    those based on intuition and common sense?
    Hindsight bias, overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events often lead us to overestimate our intuition.But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality form illusion.
  2. What are the scientific attitudes three main components?
    curiosity, being skeptical, and being humble
  3. How do the scientific attitude’s three main components relate to critical thinking?
    • . This enables them to evaluate, conclude, and examine information that discerns gut feeling and evidence based conclusions about the
    • world and human livelihood.
  4. How do psychologists ask and answer questions?

    Scientists use the scientific method known as a self-correcting process
    for evaluation ideas with observation and analysis in order to describe
    and explain human nature and theories and then puts them to the test.
    • Scientists use the scientific method known as a self-correcting process for evaluation ideas withobservation and analysis in order to describe and explain human nature and
    • theories and then puts them to the test.
  5. How do theories advance psychological science?



    Theories help us organize observations into principles. It produces testable predictions for ideas that do not seem reasonable as facts unless proven reasonable
    Theories help us organize observations into principles. It produces testable predictions for ideas that do not seem reasonable as facts unless proven reasonable
  6. How do psychologists use to observe and describe behavior, and why is random sampling important?

    Scientists use case studies, naturalistic observation, and surveys to suggest ideas that may be true for all of
    us. Random Sampling is important because it enables a study/group experiment to be unbiased
    Scientists use case studies, naturalistic observation, and surveys to suggest ideas that may be true for all of us. Random Sampling is important because it enables a study/group experiment to be unbiased
  7. What are positive and negative correlations, and why do they enable prediction but
    not cause-effect explanation?

    Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship but does not prove such. It enables prediction through association and association does not guarantee cause-effect.
    • Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship
    • but does not prove such. It enables prediction through association and association does not guarantee cause-effect.
  8. What are the characteristics of experimentation that make it possible to isolate cause
    and effect?

    Experiments enable researchers to isolate effects of 1+ factors by (1) MANIPULATING  the factors and (2) CONTROLLING
    other factors. They do this by creating experimental or control groups
    and then randomly assign people to experimental conditions in order to reduce biased experimentation.
    • Experiments enable researchers to isolate effects of 1+ factors by (1) MANIPULATING  the factors and (2)
    • CONTROLLING other factors. They do this by creating experimental or control groups and then randomly assign people to experimental conditions in
    • order to reduce biased experimentation.
  9. How can we describe data with measures of central tendency and variation?

    Central tendency is a single score that represents a whole set of scores. This measure is measured by mode, mean, and median.  sometimes data distribution can be lopsided or skewed by a few ways out scores because the single number that represents it leaves out other information. Data variation represents how similar or diverse scores are. Averages with low variability are more reliable than averages based on scores with high variability.
    Central tendency is a single score that represents a whole set of scores. This measure is measured by mode, mean, and median.  sometimes data distribution can be lopsided or skewed by a few ways out scores because the single number that represents it leaves out other information. Data variation represents how similar or diverse scores are. Averages with low variability are more reliable than averages based on scores with high variability.
  10. How do we know whether an observed difference can be generalized to other populations?

    An observed difference can be generalized to other populations when the samples are  representative rather than biased and if its average has low variability. The
    observed difference should also be based on many cases rather than few because this
    makes it more reliable.
    An observed difference can be generalized to other populations when the samples are  representative rather than biased and if its average has low variability. The observed difference should also be based on many cases rather than few because this makes it more reliable.
  11. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?

    Laboratory experiments are meant to test theoretical principles. The resulting principles help explain everyday behaviors.
    Psychological science focuses less on particular behaviors than on seeking
    general principles that help explain many behaviors. So laboratory experiments
    can help illuminate everyday life but it is limited due to its general application to life when compared to the specifics of life.
    Laboratory experiments are meant to test theoretical principles. The resulting principles help explain everyday behaviors.Psychological science focuses less on particular behaviors than on seeking general principles that help explain many behaviors. So laboratory experiments can help illuminate everyday life but it is limited due to its general application to life when compared to the specifics of life.
  12. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?

    Culture shapes behavior and is influenced by previous generation beliefs. But behavior does not solely depend on culture or gender.
    Culture shapes behavior and is influenced by previous generation beliefs. But behavior does not solely depend on culture or gender.
  13. Why do psychologists study animals, and what ethical guidelines safeguard human and animal research participants?”

    Psychologists often study animals to learn about people. Humans are a species of animals; therefore they share a common biology with animals. For example, the study of animals have led to treatment of disease
    Psychologists often study animals to learn about people. Humans are a species of animals; therefore they share a common biology with animals. For example, the study of animals have led to treatment of disease
  14. Is psychology free of value judgments?

    Psychology is not value free of value judgments. Values effect choice and preference and reveals our own
    attitudes. Psychologist's choose their experiments and studies based on their values.
    Psychology is not value free of value judgments. Values effect choice and preference and reveals our own attitudes. Psychologist's choose their experiments and studies based on their values.
  15. Hindsight Bias
    • Going by how and why someone felt or acted as they did (I knew
    • it all along/common sense)
  16. Critical Thinking
    examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
  17. Theory
    • explanation with principles that organize observations and
    • predict behaviors or events.
  18. Hypothesis
    Testable Predictions produced by theory
  19. Case Study
    • analyses of special individuals 
    • in  order to reveal things true of
    • us all. Early knowledge of the brain came from case studies
  20. Naturalistic Observations
    • Watching and recording the
    • natural behavior of many individuals such as chimpanzee societies in the jungle
  21. Random Sample
    • every person in an entire
    • group has an equal chance of participating without there being a sampling bias.
    • This enables a group to better represent a whole population.
  22. Correlation
    • One trait/behavior is
    • related to another. Enables Naturalistic observations/surveys to help predict
    • behavior
  23. Correlation coefficient
    • (statistical measure) helps
    • figure out how closely two things vary together and how well either one
    • predicts the other.
  24. Scatterplot
    • Help measure how closely
    • stress is related to disease. A graph cluster of dots reps value of 2 variables.
    • Little scatter=high correlation/Increased scatter=low correlation
  25. experiment
    • Research method. Investigator manipulates 1+ factor to observe
    • behavior effect/mental process.
  26. Experimental group
    • Group exposed to treatment,
    • one version of independent variable
  27. Group not exposed to
    treatment; contrasts with experimental group and serves as a comparison for
    evaluating the effect of the treatment.
    control group
  28. Random assignment
    • Assigning participants to
    • experimental and control groups by chance, minimizes preexisting differences
    • between those assigned to diff groups
  29. Double-blind procedure
    • (Experimental procedure)
    • research participants and research staff are blind about whether research
    • participants have received treatment or placebo. Common in drug studies.
  30. Placebo effect
    • Results caused by
    • expectation. Effect on behavior caused by substance/condition recipient assumes
    • as active agent.
  31. Independent variable
    • Manipulated experimental
    • factor. Variable who’s effect is being studied
  32. Confounding variable
    • Factor that might produce
    • effect in experiment
  33. Mode
     Most frequently occurring score(s) in distribution.
  34. Mean
    • Average of distribution. 1st
    • add scores 2nd divide by # of scores
  35. Median
    • Middle score in
    • distribution
  36. Range
    gap btwn low/high scores.
  37. standard deviation
    • The most useful standard
    • for measuring how much scores deviat from one another. Tells weather scores are
    • packed together or dispersed.
  38. normal curve
    • Symmetrical bell shaped curve describes
    • distribution of types of data; most scores fall near mean and fewer and fewer
    • near the extremes.
  39. statistical significance
    • Statistical statement of
    • how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
  40. culture
    • Long lasting behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, traditions
    • shared by group of ppl and transmitted from 1 gen to next.
  41. Informed consent
    • Ethical principle research
    • participants are told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to
    • participate.
  42. Debriefing
    • Post
    • experimental explanation of studyk, includes purpose/deceptions to
    • participants.

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