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What does the word "psychology" mean?
- Psyche: study of soul
- Logos: study of a subject
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What are the "ABCs" of Psychology?
What is the "old debate"?
mental processes vs. behavior
What are the two types of psychologists?
What are some of the specialties in psychology?
- Clinical psychology
- Developmental psychology
- Industrial/organizational psychology
- Cognitive psychology
- Social psychology
- Forensic psychology
Who was Joseph Gall?
He stated that different parts of your brain do different things. (late 1700s)
Who was Rene Descartes?
Stated the famous quote "I think therefore I am". Stated that humans are alive if they could think; animals and humans share common characteristics, dualism, and the mind-body problem.
Who was Charles Darwin?
- Natural Selection
- Implications to Psychology
Who was Wilhelm Wundt?
- Known as the father of psychology
- Opened the first lab in Germany in 1879
- Interested in conscious experience
- His method is introspection
Who was Edward Titchener?
Studied structuralism of the mind
What is Structuralism?
- Basic building blocks of the mind (Reductionism)
- Focused on sensation & perception (how elements combine to create a whole)
- Introspection proved too subjective (Changed from person to person; lying)
- Study was very big in Germany
Who was William James?
Advocate of Functualism of the mind
What is functualism?
- How the mind adapts
- influenced by theory of evolution
- mind always fluid (stream of consciousness)
- Functionalists introduced religion
Who was Sigmund Freud?
- Advocate of Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Perspective
- How mind influences behavior
What is Behaviorism?
- Started around 1920
- John Watson, B.F. Skinner, & Ivan Pavlov
- Objective observable influences on behavior
- Stimulus and response
- Effects of reinforcement
What is Gestalt psychology?
- Started with Wolfgang Kohler in Germany
- Response to structuralism
- Stated that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Why study research methods in psychology?
- Helps you identify faulty thinking (horoscopes)
- Helps you become a better consumer of psychological information
What are the five signs of good research?
- Precision (theory, hypothesis)
- Reliance on Empirical evidence (belief that scientific information comes from careful and systematic observation)
- Willingness to make "risky predictions" (principle of falsifiability)
- Openness (Replication, experimenter effects, measurement problems)
What are the five types of studies?
- Naturalistic Observation
- Field Studies
- Case Studies
- Correlational Methods
What cannot occur in Naturalistic Observation?
- Experimenter must NOT interact with subjects
- Subjects must NOT know they are being observed
What are the pros of Naturalistic Observation?
- Not in laboratory
- Sometimes it is the only feasible way to ethically study something
What are the cons of Naturalistic Observation?
- Observer bias
- Subjects may discover they are being observed
- Behavior may not occur when you are observing
- No cause and effect
What are field studies?
Same as Naturalistic Observation but experimenter interacts with subject
What are the pros and cons of field studies?
Pros/Cons are the same as Naturalistic Observation but experimenter has more control over the situation.
What are case studies?
- Intense observation of one or a few subjects for a long period of time
- Typically used by clinical psychologists
- Attempts to generalize findings to larger population
What are the pros of case studies?
- Experimenter can observe many variables and how they interact
- May be only method available for ethical reasons
What are surveys?
- The means of collecting observations from a large number of subjects usually by interview or questionnaire
- Sampling & generalization
- Representative sample (ex. Dewey vs. Truman)
What are the pros of surveys?
Easy and fast way to collect data
What are the cons of surveys?
- sampling error
- volunteer bias
- social desirability
What are correlational methods?
Scientific study in which the researcher measures two variables and their relationship and how variables are related
What are the pros of correlational methods?
- Results can lead to more controlled studies
What are the cons of correlational methods?
- No cause and effect
- Possibility of 3rd variable