Intro to Psychology
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Intro to Psychology
intro to psychology part 1
What does the word "psychology" mean?
: study of soul
: study of a subject
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What are the
What is the
mental processes vs. behavior
What are the two types of psychologists?
What are some of the specialties in psychology?
Who was Joseph Gall?
He stated that different parts of your brain do different things. (late 1700s)
Who was Rene Descartes?
Stated the famous quote "I think therefore I am". Stated that humans are alive if they could think; animals and humans share common characteristics, dualism, and the mind-body problem.
Who was Charles Darwin?
Implications to Psychology
Who was Wilhelm Wundt?
Known as the father of psychology
Opened the first lab in Germany in 1879
Interested in conscious experience
His method is introspection
Who was Edward Titchener?
Studied structuralism of the mind
What is Structuralism?
Basic building blocks of the mind (Reductionism)
Focused on sensation & perception (how elements combine to create a whole)
Introspection proved too subjective (Changed from person to person; lying)
Study was very big in Germany
Who was William James?
of the mind
What is functualism?
How the mind adapts
influenced by theory of evolution
mind always fluid (stream of consciousness)
Functionalists introduced religion
Who was Sigmund Freud?
Advocate of Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Perspective
How mind influences behavior
What is Behaviorism?
Started around 1920
John Watson, B.F. Skinner, & Ivan Pavlov
Objective observable influences on behavior
Stimulus and response
Effects of reinforcement
What is Gestalt psychology?
Started with Wolfgang Kohler in Germany
Response to structuralism
Stated that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Why study research methods in psychology?
Helps you identify faulty thinking (horoscopes)
Helps you become a better consumer of psychological information
What are the five signs of good research?
Reliance on Empirical evidence
(belief that scientific information comes from careful and systematic observation)
Willingness to make "risky predictions"
(principle of falsifiability)
(Replication, experimenter effects, measurement problems)
What are the five types of studies?
What cannot occur in Naturalistic Observation?
Experimenter must NOT interact with subjects
Subjects must NOT know they are being observed
What are the pros of Naturalistic Observation?
Not in laboratory
Sometimes it is the only feasible way to ethically study something
What are the cons of Naturalistic Observation?
Subjects may discover they are being observed
Behavior may not occur when you are observing
No cause and effect
What are field studies?
Same as Naturalistic Observation but experimenter interacts with subject
What are the pros and cons of field studies?
Pros/Cons are the same as Naturalistic Observation but experimenter has more control over the situation.
What are case studies?
Intense observation of one or a few subjects for a long period of time
Typically used by clinical psychologists
Attempts to generalize findings to larger population
What are the pros of case studies?
Experimenter can observe many variables and how they interact
May be only method available for ethical reasons
What are surveys?
The means of collecting observations from a large number of subjects usually by interview or questionnaire
Sampling & generalization
Representative sample (ex. Dewey vs. Truman)
What are the pros of surveys?
Easy and fast way to collect data
What are the cons of surveys?
What are correlational methods?
Scientific study in which the researcher measures two variables and their relationship and how variables are related
What are the pros of correlational methods?
Results can lead to more controlled studies
What are the cons of correlational methods?
No cause and effect
Possibility of 3rd variable