Theories for Exam 1

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Theories for Exam 1
2013-01-29 20:07:43
Human development

Human development
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  1. Theoretical Perspectives
    • Psychodynamic
    • Behavioral
    • Cognitive
    • Humanistic
    • Contextual
    • Evolutionary
  2. What are the theories of the Psychodynamic Perspective?
    • Psychosocial Theory
    • Psychoanalytic Theory 
  3. Who is the theorist of the Psychosocial Theory?
  4. What is the primary focus of the Psychosocial Theory?
    Focus on social interaction with others
  5. How does development proceed in the Psychosocial Theory?
    Development occurs through changes in interactions with and understanding of others and in self knowledge and understanding of members of society
  6. What are the principles of the Psychosocial Theory?
    • Psychosocial development involves eight distinct, fixed, universal stages. 
    • Each stage presents crisis/conflict to be resolved; growth and change are lifelong
  7. Who is the theorist of the Psychoanalytic Theory?
  8. What develops in the Psychoanalytic Theory?
    Focus on inner person, unconscious forces acts to determine personality and behavior
  9. How does development proceed in the Psychoanalytic theory?
    Behavior motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts
  10. What are the Principles of the Psychoanalytic Theory?
    Personality as 3 aspects- id, ego, and superego

    Psychosexual development involves series of stages- oral, anal, phallic, genital
  11. What are widely excepted about the Freud and Erikson theories?
    • Freud: Notion of unconscious influences accepted by many
    • Erikson: Notion of development throughout lifespan receives considerable support
  12. What is widely questioned or rejected about the Freud and Erikson theories?
    • Freud: 
    • Effects of childhood stages on later development not validated
    • Generalizability to broader, multicultural populations not supported
    • Primary focus on male development criticized
    • Erikson:
    • More focus on men than women
    • Vague and difficult to test rigorously in some parts
  13. Who are the theorists of the Behavioral Perspective?
    • John B. Watson
    • B. F. Skinner
    • Albert Bandura 
  14. What develops in John B. Watson's theory?
    focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli
  15. How development proceeds in the John B. Watson's theory
    behavior is result of continuing exposure to specific environmental factors; developmental change is quantitive
  16. What are the principles of John B. Watson's theory
    classical conditioning
  17. What develops in B. F. Skinner's theory
    focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli
  18. How does development proceed in the B. F. Skinner theory?
    Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by association with negative or positive consequences
  19. What are the principles of B. F. Skinner's theory?
    Operant conditioning
  20. What develops in Albert Bandura's theory?
    Focus on learning through imitation
  21. How development proceeds
    Behavior is learned through observation
  22. What are the principles of Albert Bandura's theory?
    Social-cognitive learning occurs through four steps: attend/perceive, recall, accurately reproduce, motivated to carry out behavior 
  23. What is widely accepted about Watson and Skinner's theories?
    • Based on observable behaviors that are easier to quantify in research
    • Contributions to educational techniques for children with severe mental retardation
  24. What is widely questioned or rejected?
    • Social learning theorists suggest oversimplification
    • Behaviorism does not account for free will, internal influences (moods, thoughts, feelings), or other types of learning
  25. Who are the theorists of the Cognitive perspective? 
    • Jean Piaget
    • Information-processing approach
    • Cognitive Neuroscience Approach 
  26. What develops in the Jean Piaget theory?
    focus on processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
  27. How development proceeds in Jean Piaget's theory?
    human thinking is arranged in organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions; understanding of world improves through assimilation and accommodation
  28. Principles of Jean Piaget's theory?
    Classical conditioning
  29. What is widely accepted about Jean Piaget's theory?
    • Theory profoundly influenced understanding of cognition?
    • Broad view of sequence of cognitive development is accurate
  30. What is widely questioned or rejected about Jean Piaget's theory?
    • Some specifics questions about changes in cognitive capabilities over time (timing of emerging skills)
    • Universality of stages has been disputed
    • Cultural differences in emergence of particular cognitive skills suggested
    • Growth is more continuous than proposed 
  31. What develops from the Information-processing approach's theory?
    Focus is primarily on memory
  32. How development proceeds in the Information-processing approach's theory
    information is thought to be processed in serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from stage to stage (stage theory model); information is stored in multiple locations throughout brain by means of networks of connections 
  33. what are the principles of Information-processing approach's theory?
    Cognitive development proceeds quickly in certain areas and more slowly in others; experience plays greater role in cognition
  34. What is widely accepted about the INformation-Processing's theory
    Theory may currently be central part of understanding of development
  35. Widely questioned or rejected about information-processing's theory
    Theory does not offer complete explanation for behavior or address social context in which development takes place
  36. What develops in the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach's theory
    focus on cognitive development through lens of brain
  37. How development proceeds in the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach's theory
    Approach considers internal, mental processes, but focuses specifically on the neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and other cognitive behavior
  38. What are the principles of the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach's theory?
    Associations between specific genes and wide range of disorders are identified
  39. Who is the theorist of the Humanistic Perspective?
    • Carl Rogers
    • Abraham Maslow
  40. What develops in Rogers and Maslow's theory?
    focus on each individual's ability and motivation to reach more advanced levels of maturity; people naturally seek to reach full potential 
  41. How development proceeds in Rogers and Maslow's theory
    free of supernaturalism, approach recognizes human beings as a part of nature and holds that values (religious, ethical, social, political) have their source in human experience and culture
  42. What principles of Rogers and Maslow's theory
    All people have need for positive regard resulting from underlying wish to be loved and respected; positive regard comes from others
  43. What is widely accepted about Rogers and Maslow's theory
    • Some concepts help describe important aspects of human behavior
    • Humanistic influences seen in wide range of areas from health care to business
  44. Widely questioned or rejected about Rogers and Maslow's theory
    No clear, major impact on field of lifespan development due to lack of identification of broad developmental change that is the result of increasing age or experience
  45. Who is the theorist of the Contextual Perspective?
    Urie Bronfenbrenner
  46. What develops in  Bronfenbrenner's theory?
    focus relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds
  47. How development proceeds in Bronfenbrenner's theory
    Development is unique and intimately tied to person's social and cultural context; four levels of environment simultaneously influence individuals
  48. principles of Bronfenbrenner's theory
    Each system contains roles, norms, and rules that can powerfully shape development
  49. What is widely accepted about Bronfenbrenner's theory
    perspective helped generate much research

    suggestion of mutual accommodation between the developing individual and the environment affects children's develop is of considerable importance to child development
  50. What is widely questioned or rejected about Bronfenbrenner's theory
    • Some argue that perspective pays insufficient attention to biological factors
    • Difficult to text for "neighborhood" effects
  51. Who is the theorist of the Sociocultural Perspective?
    Lev Vygotsky
  52. What develops in Lev Vygotsky's theory?
    As children play and cooperate with others, they learn what is important in their society and advanced cognitively in their understanding of world
  53. How development proceeds in Lev Vygotsky's theory
    approach emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members
  54. What are the principles of Lev Vygotsky's theory
    Development is a reciprocal transaction between people in the child's environment and the child
  55. What is widely accepted about Lev Vygotky's theory
    One of the first developmentalists to recognized importance of culture

    Perspective becoming increasingly influential with growing acknowledgement of central importance of cultural factors in development 
  56. Widely questioned or rejected of Levi Vygosky's theory
    Some argue that emphasis on role of culture and social experience presented at expense of focus on effects of biological factors on development

    Approach minimizes role individuals play in shaping own environment
  57. Who is the theorist of the Evolutionary Perspective
    Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz
  58. What develops in Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz's theory
    through a process of natural selection traits in a species that are adaptive to its environment are creative
  59. How development proceeds in Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz
    Behavior is result of genetic inheritance from ancestors
  60. Principles of Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz
    Ethological influence (examines ways in which biological makeup affects behavior)
  61. What is widely accepted of Charles Darwin/ Konrad Lorenz's theory
    Evolutionary approach is increasingly visible in field of lifespan development 
  62. Widely questioned or rejected of Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz's theory
    Some argue that perspective pays insufficient attention to environmental ad social factors involved in producing children's and adults behavior

    Experimental testing of theory is difficult