Theories for Exam 1
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What are the theories of the Psychodynamic Perspective?
- Psychosocial Theory
- Psychoanalytic Theory
Who is the theorist of the Psychosocial Theory?
What is the primary focus of the Psychosocial Theory?
Focus on social interaction with others
How does development proceed in the Psychosocial Theory?
Development occurs through changes in interactions with and understanding of others and in self knowledge and understanding of members of society
What are the principles of the Psychosocial Theory?
- Psychosocial development involves eight distinct, fixed, universal stages.
- Each stage presents crisis/conflict to be resolved; growth and change are lifelong
Who is the theorist of the Psychoanalytic Theory?
What develops in the Psychoanalytic Theory?
Focus on inner person, unconscious forces acts to determine personality and behavior
How does development proceed in the Psychoanalytic theory?
Behavior motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts
What are the Principles of the Psychoanalytic Theory?
Personality as 3 aspects- id, ego, and superego
Psychosexual development involves series of stages- oral, anal, phallic, genital
What are widely excepted about the Freud and Erikson theories?
- Freud: Notion of unconscious influences accepted by many
- Erikson: Notion of development throughout lifespan receives considerable support
What is widely questioned or rejected about the Freud and Erikson theories?
- Effects of childhood stages on later development not validated
- Generalizability to broader, multicultural populations not supported
- Primary focus on male development criticized
- More focus on men than women
- Vague and difficult to test rigorously in some parts
Who are the theorists of the Behavioral Perspective?
- John B. Watson
- B. F. Skinner
- Albert Bandura
What develops in John B. Watson's theory?
focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli
How development proceeds in the John B. Watson's theory
behavior is result of continuing exposure to specific environmental factors; developmental change is quantitive
What are the principles of John B. Watson's theory
What develops in B. F. Skinner's theory
focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli
How does development proceed in the B. F. Skinner theory?
Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by association with negative or positive consequences
What are the principles of B. F. Skinner's theory?
What develops in Albert Bandura's theory?
Focus on learning through imitation
How development proceeds
Behavior is learned through observation
What are the principles of Albert Bandura's theory?
Social-cognitive learning occurs through four steps: attend/perceive, recall, accurately reproduce, motivated to carry out behavior
What is widely accepted about Watson and Skinner's theories?
- Based on observable behaviors that are easier to quantify in research
- Contributions to educational techniques for children with severe mental retardation
What is widely questioned or rejected?
- Social learning theorists suggest oversimplification
- Behaviorism does not account for free will, internal influences (moods, thoughts, feelings), or other types of learning
Who are the theorists of the Cognitive perspective?
- Jean Piaget
- Information-processing approach
- Cognitive Neuroscience Approach
What develops in the Jean Piaget theory?
focus on processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
How development proceeds in Jean Piaget's theory?
human thinking is arranged in organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions; understanding of world improves through assimilation and accommodation
Principles of Jean Piaget's theory?
What is widely accepted about Jean Piaget's theory?
- Theory profoundly influenced understanding of cognition?
- Broad view of sequence of cognitive development is accurate
What is widely questioned or rejected about Jean Piaget's theory?
- Some specifics questions about changes in cognitive capabilities over time (timing of emerging skills)
- Universality of stages has been disputed
- Cultural differences in emergence of particular cognitive skills suggested
- Growth is more continuous than proposed
What develops from the Information-processing approach's theory?
Focus is primarily on memory
How development proceeds in the Information-processing approach's theory
information is thought to be processed in serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from stage to stage (stage theory model); information is stored in multiple locations throughout brain by means of networks of connections
what are the principles of Information-processing approach's theory?
Cognitive development proceeds quickly in certain areas and more slowly in others; experience plays greater role in cognition
What is widely accepted about the INformation-Processing's theory
Theory may currently be central part of understanding of development
Widely questioned or rejected about information-processing's theory
Theory does not offer complete explanation for behavior or address social context in which development takes place
What develops in the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach's theory
focus on cognitive development through lens of brain
How development proceeds in the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach's theory
Approach considers internal, mental processes, but focuses specifically on the neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and other cognitive behavior
What are the principles of the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach's theory?
Associations between specific genes and wide range of disorders are identified
Who is the theorist of the Humanistic Perspective?
- Carl Rogers
- Abraham Maslow
What develops in Rogers and Maslow's theory?
focus on each individual's ability and motivation to reach more advanced levels of maturity; people naturally seek to reach full potential
How development proceeds in Rogers and Maslow's theory
free of supernaturalism, approach recognizes human beings as a part of nature and holds that values (religious, ethical, social, political) have their source in human experience and culture
What principles of Rogers and Maslow's theory
All people have need for positive regard resulting from underlying wish to be loved and respected; positive regard comes from others
What is widely accepted about Rogers and Maslow's theory
- Some concepts help describe important aspects of human behavior
- Humanistic influences seen in wide range of areas from health care to business
Widely questioned or rejected about Rogers and Maslow's theory
No clear, major impact on field of lifespan development due to lack of identification of broad developmental change that is the result of increasing age or experience
Who is the theorist of the Contextual Perspective?
What develops in Bronfenbrenner's theory?
focus relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds
How development proceeds in Bronfenbrenner's theory
Development is unique and intimately tied to person's social and cultural context; four levels of environment simultaneously influence individuals
principles of Bronfenbrenner's theory
Each system contains roles, norms, and rules that can powerfully shape development
What is widely accepted about Bronfenbrenner's theory
perspective helped generate much research
suggestion of mutual accommodation between the developing individual and the environment affects children's develop is of considerable importance to child development
What is widely questioned or rejected about Bronfenbrenner's theory
- Some argue that perspective pays insufficient attention to biological factors
- Difficult to text for "neighborhood" effects
Who is the theorist of the Sociocultural Perspective?
What develops in Lev Vygotsky's theory?
As children play and cooperate with others, they learn what is important in their society and advanced cognitively in their understanding of world
How development proceeds in Lev Vygotsky's theory
approach emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members
What are the principles of Lev Vygotsky's theory
Development is a reciprocal transaction between people in the child's environment and the child
What is widely accepted about Lev Vygotky's theory
One of the first developmentalists to recognized importance of culture
Perspective becoming increasingly influential with growing acknowledgement of central importance of cultural factors in development
Widely questioned or rejected of Levi Vygosky's theory
Some argue that emphasis on role of culture and social experience presented at expense of focus on effects of biological factors on development
Approach minimizes role individuals play in shaping own environment
Who is the theorist of the Evolutionary Perspective
Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz
What develops in Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz's theory
through a process of natural selection traits in a species that are adaptive to its environment are creative
How development proceeds in Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz
Behavior is result of genetic inheritance from ancestors
Principles of Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz
Ethological influence (examines ways in which biological makeup affects behavior)
What is widely accepted of Charles Darwin/ Konrad Lorenz's theory
Evolutionary approach is increasingly visible in field of lifespan development
Widely questioned or rejected of Charles Darwin/Konrad Lorenz's theory
Some argue that perspective pays insufficient attention to environmental ad social factors involved in producing children's and adults behavior
Experimental testing of theory is difficult
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