MGMT 350 Test #1

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  1. reflective response
    the listener restates the feeling and/or content of what the speaker communicated and does so in a way that demonstrates understanding and acceptance; vs. judging & criticizing
  2. paraphrase
    concise response to the speaker which states the essence of the other's content in the listener's own words; condensed, not too long; what is central, the heart of the matter; focuses on facts & ideas vs. emotions
  3. nonverbals
    portray a person's feelings & often indicate how a person is coping w/ their feelings; communicate feelings about relationships through these; body language, facial expressions, posture, & gestures
  4. subtractive responses
    when the listener's response doesn't demonstrate accurate comprehension of the other person
  5. interchangeable responses
    when the listener reflects the real feelings & specific content of the speaker with approximately the same intensity that they were expressed; build trust & understanding before additive responses used
  6. additive responses
    when the listener makes several interchangeable responses and then goes beyond what they speaker communicated; relate to what the speaker has been saying about themselves; can b risky, damage the relationship
  7. yang
    assertion; the disclosure to another of what the speaker feels, needs, & desires
  8. yin
    listening; understanding & acceptance offered to another in times of stress & joy
  9. personal space
    a physical, psychological, & values territory ( a person's possessions- clothes, furniture) where we exercise the prerogatives of our own individuality
  10. assertion
    defending one's space, satisfy their needs, impacting on other people & society in nondestructive & abusive ways; maintains self-respect & that of others; expresses in direct & appropriate ways; doesn't violate the needs of others or trespass on their personal space
  11. submission
    makes a choice to have lack of respect for their own needs & rights; don't express their honest feelings, needs, values, & concerns; allow others to violate their space, deny their rights, & ignore their needs; may not be taken seriously= shrug shoulders, excessively soft voice, hesitating speech; nondefensive
  12. aggression
    move with intent to hurt; expresses feelings, needs, & ideas at the expense of others; speaks loudly, rude, sarcastic; dominate; insist on having the final words; overpowers other people; P.O.V. is what other person wants is of lesser importance or of none at all; respect themselves only
  13. productive ways of asserting a message
    non-judgmental description of behavior to be changed, a disclosure of the asserter's feelings, & a clarification of the effect of the other person's behavior on the asserter
  14. preparation, send the message, silence, reflective listening to the other's defensive response, recycle steps 2-4 as often as necessary, & focus on a solution
    six-step assertion process
  15. "natural" assertions
    nonaggressive ways of getting one's needs met without following any particular method (no formula), spontaneous; appropriate when no one is experiencing much stress & when the assertion is unlikely to trigger much tension
  16. self-disclosure
    occurs when you are your real self in the presence of others; intellectual & emotional honesty; includes expression of your true opinion & values through words & body language
  17. descriptive recognition
    a way of letting someone know that you value their behavior; positively affects the person & enhances your relationship with them; expressing appreciation freely & constructively; mention positive effect of their behavior on your life
  18. very nourishing, mildly nourishing, noncontributing, mildly toxic , & very toxic
    5 types of interpersonal relationships
  19. very nourishing
    type of interpersonal relationship that contributes greatly to your life
  20. mildly nourishing
    type of interpersonal relationship that makes some contribution to your development and/or enjoyment of life
  21. noncontributing
    type of interpersonal relationship that is a neutral encounter that does nothing for you
  22. mildly toxic
    type of interpersonal relationship that slightly diminishes your selfhood and/or enjoyment of life
  23. very toxic
    type of interpersonal relationship that is excessively demanding, hostile, depleting, or nerve-wrecking
  24. act quickly to stop the action, don't become emotionally embroiled yourself, accept the feeling, & perhaps suggest alternative behaviors
    assertion procedure (when faced with an outburst of hostile behavior)
  25. can prevent stagnation, stimulate interest & curiosity, & foster creativity; must be handled well; more intimacy, high self-esteem in children; technological improvement which lead to increased wage levels; organizational, social, religious, political renewal
    benefits of conflict
  26. realistic conflict
    when there are opposed goals, needs, means, values, or interest
  27. nonrealistic conflict
    stems from ignorance, error, historical tradition & prejudice, dysfunctional organizational structure, win/lose types of competition, displaced hostility, or the need for tension release; can cause much unnecessary destruction
  28. treat the other person with respect (the way you listen, look at them, tone of voice, selection of words, type of reasoning used), listen until you "experience the other side" (reflectively), state your views, needs, & feelings
    the conflict resolution method (3 steps)
  29. Do each of us have sufficient emotional energy for this conflict? Who should be there? When is the best? Where is the best place?
    preparation for the encounter
  30. emotions (differences, strong antagonistic feelings develop), values, & conflict of needs (substantive issues)
    3 kinds of conflict
  31. denial, avoidance, capitulation, & domination
    4 alternatives to collaborative problem solving; lose/lose
  32. denial
    exclude problems from conscious awareness, interpersonal problems don't exist; pretending to oneself & others that everything is all right
  33. avoidance
    when people are aware of interpersonal conflict, but do everything w/i their power to escape them; withdraw from situations when conflicts occur; gloss over the problem acting as though it doesn't exist, withdrawal
  34. capitulation (submit)
    giving in often w/o a struggle (w/o getting their needs met); leads to resentment
  35. domination
    imposing one's own solution on the other person; it's all about meeting the needs of the one who is in control; usually used by aggressive people; the other person's needs are not addressed at all, accurately perceived, or fully met as is possible
  36. compromise (50/50)
    mutual consent, takes into acct. the needs & fears of both parties; when used consistently= each settling for less than what they really want for temporary peace, kills creativity, stifles people, strangles profits
  37. collaborative problem solving (win/win)
    joining together to find a solution acceptable to all, discover alternatives, focus on overlapping interests; most desirable way to solve conflict, nobody gives up or gives in
  38. define the problem in terms of needs not solutions, brainstorm possible solutions, select solution(s) that will best meet both parties' needs & check possible consequences, plan who will do what, where, & by when, implement the plan, & evaluate the process & at a later date how well the solution turned out
    6 steps of the collaborative-problem solving method
  39. try for quantity, not quality, don't evaluate, don't clarify or seek clarification, go for zany ideas, expand on each other's ideas, list every idea (don't edit, censor, or judge), & avoid attaching people's names to the ideas they suggest or listing each person's contribution separately
    brainstorming guidelines
  40. consensus
    finding "a sense of the meeting"; a willingness to accept the group's decision; the decision-making method most appropriate in the collaborative problem-solving process; free & open exchange of ideas until agreement reached
  41. not handling the emotions first, not defining the problem properly, evaluating or clarifying during brainstorming, not working out the nitty-gritty details, not following up to see that the action steps are carried out
    common traps in the collaboration problem solving process
  42. genuiness
    being honest & open about one's feelings, needs, and ideas; being what one really is w/o front or facade; an authentic person experiences his feelings & is able to express them when appropriate; what you see is what you get; don't be the kind of person you think others want you to be
  43. empathy
    the ability to really see & hear another person and understand them from their perspective; walking in their shoes, see the world through their eyes; listens in a nonprejudice, nonjudgmental way; feeling with the other person; still maintains separateness; experiencing the feelings of another w/o losing one's own identity (maintaining your ideas)
  44. acceptance
    an attitude of neutrality toward another person(s); not a lot of evaluations of the other's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
  45. apathy
    lack of feeling or a lack of interest or concern; uninvolved, detachment, don't care to be burdened by other's problems
  46. sympathy
    overinvolvement in the emotion of another person(s), overcome by emotions of them, feeling for another person; "oh-you-poor-thing" attitude
  47. a quantified commitment to use the skills, select appropriate situations, be undaunted by occasional failure, & prepare others for the change
    4 steps to improved communication
  48. posture, eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, voice, & breath
    assertive body language
  49. feel good about themselves, fosters fulfilling relationships, release positive energy toward others, less driven by needs of self-protection or control, can see, hear, & love others easily, more comfortable with yourself, others more comfortable around you, can live one's own life, able to stand up for your own rights & needs
    advantages of assertion
  50. disruptions in one's life, pain associated w/ honest & caring confrontation, involves becoming vulnerable in significant relationships
    disadvantages of assertion
  51. generations, significant emotional event, parents, school, church (religion), politics/political, social, living location, culture (radio, tv), economics
    where we get values from (10)
  52. criticizing, name-calling, diagnosing, praising evaluatively, ordering, threatening, moralizing, excessive/inappropriate questioning, advising, diverting, logical argument, & reassuring; perception
    barriers to communication (12)
  53. paraphrasing, reflective feelings, reflecting meanings, summative reflections
    4 skills of reflective listening
  54. words have different meanings for different people, people often "code" their messages, people frequently talk about "presenting problems" when another topic is of greater concern to them, speaker may be blind to their emotions or blinded by them, listeners are often easily distracted, & listeners hear through "filters" that distort much of what is being said
    6 peculiarities of human communication
  55. closed-ended question
    yes/no, T/F answer; gets the other person to start talking, channel the other person's thoughts in a specific direction, obtain specific info. in  a short response & obtain factual or historical info.; may give impression of interrogation, answers reveal little, you do most of the talking, & may be inhibiting when used early in the convo.
  56. open-ended question
    get the person to elaborate, channel thoughts in a general direction, & clarify and reflect the other person's thoughts & feelings; may lead them to ramble & may fail to produce specific response
  57. before you act, before you argue or criticize, when the other person experiences strong feelings or wants to talk over a problem, when the other person is speaking in a "code", when another person wants to sort out their feelings & thoughts, during a "direct mutual conversation", when you are talking to yourself, & when encountering new ideas in a book or lecture or at work
    when to listen reflectively (8)
  58. when you're unable to be accepting, when you don't trust the other to find his own solution, when you're not separate from the other, when you use listening as a way of hiding yourself, when you feel very pressured, hassled, or depleted
    when to not listen reflectively (5)
  59. downward (starts from the top), upward (starts from lower level=the people actually doing the job), horizontal (same level to same level), & grapevine (rumor-mill, informal, fastest, contains no facts, managers need to put a stop to it A.S.A.P)
    organizational communications (4)
Card Set:
MGMT 350 Test #1
2013-03-04 07:30:02
mgmt 350

Chapters 1-15
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