The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin.
Groups of private investors who paid anannual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies.
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.
Dutch West India Company
n the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century.
An often difficult period of adjustment to new climates, disease environments, and work routines, such as that experienced by slaves newly arrived in the Americas.
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate colonies to trade only with their motherland country
A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America.
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave.
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.
Royal African Company
The network of trade routes connectingEurope, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system.
The part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.
empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the sixteenth century, the Muslim Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
An agricultural and trading people of central Sudan in West Africa. Aside from their brief incorporation into the Songhai Empire, the city-states remained autonomous until the Sokoto Calipphate conquered them.
A West African kingdom at the southern edge of the Sahara in the Central Sudan, important in trans-Saharan trade and in the spread of Islam. Also known as Kanem-Bornu,from the ninth century to the nineteenth.
african kingdom on the gold coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. participated in the atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. it resisted british imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into britain.
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations.
modern-day haiti) french sugar colony that had the only slave revolt that resulted in the abolition of slavery
where portuguese established a permanent settlement