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- an alliance formed by Austria, Russia and Prussia in September of 1815 that became a symbol of the repression of liberal and revolutionary movements all over Europe.
- against ideals and politics of the dual revolution
Congress of Vienna
- a meeting of Russia , Prussia , Austria and Great Britain to fashion a peace settlement having defeated France .
- Meeting between Quadrupal Alliance in order to formulate a peace afreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic Wars. They tried to establish a balance of power in Europe
issued in 1819, these decrees required the 38 German member states to root out subversive idea in their universities and newspapers.
- historian Eric Hobsbawn used this term for the economic and political changes that tended to fuse, reinforcing each other
- caused by economic and political changes that reinforced each other
he principle ideas of which are equality and liberty, demanded representative government as opposed to aristrocratic government and equality before the law as well as individual freedoms such as freedom of press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
- economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
- opponents of liberalism
the idea that each people had its own genius and its own cultural unity this cultural unity was self-evident, manifesting itself especially in a common language, history and territory.
- a backlash against the emergence of individualism and fragmentation of society it was a move towards cooperation and a sense of community, the key ideas were panning, greater economic equality and state regulation of property.
- believed in economic planning
the court, the aristocracy, lawyers and church men (according to Count Henri de Saint-Simon the key to progress was social organization and this required parasites to give way to doers).
the leading scientists, engineers and industrialists (according to Count Henri de Saint-Simon the doers would plan the economy and guide it forward by undertaking public works projects and establishment investment banks).
the middle class
the modern working class
a movement that was revolting against classicism and the Enlightenment, it was characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and personal life.
Strum and Drang
Storm and Stress, German early Romantics of the 1770s and 1780s who lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity; suicides, duels, madness and strange illnesses were common.
- laws revised in 1815 that prohibited the importation of foreign grain trade unless the price at home rose to improbable levels.
- passed by Toriesto protect big landholding aristocracy from imports of foreign gain
Battle of Peterloo
- a protest that took place at Saint Peters Fields in Manchester that was broken up by armed cavalry in reaction to the revision of the Corn Lawsdemonstrated of the goernments determination to repress and stand fast
- scornful reference to British victory at waterloo
Great Famine in Ireland
- the result of four years of crop failure in Ireland a country that had grown dependent of potatoes as a dietary staple.
- attaced young plants, leaves withered, tuberes rottedwidespread starvation and mass fever epidemics follows
Describe the concept of "Balance of Power" in 1814-1815
- believed to an international equilibrium of political an military forces
- result of alliance between Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain
- restored French and Bourbon dynasty
- made other boundary changes in Europe- established Prussia as sentinel against France
- made new kingdom out of Belgium and Holland
Who were the Congress of Vienna- what principles guided their actions? Were they successful?
- composed of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain
- guided by the concept of balance of power would keep peace in Europe
- they _____ successful ______ the demands of the victors for compensation, mostly of Prussia and Russia, threatened the balance
Describe the make up of the Austrian power. How and why were nationalism and liberalism regarded as dangerous to those in power?
- Germans accounted for 1/4 of the population
- the Magyars (Hungarians) were a smaller group, but dominated kingdom of Hungary.
- Czechs were 3rd maj group in Bohemia and Moravia
- large #'s of Italians, Proles, Ukranians and small groups like Slovens, croats, serbs, Ruthenians and Romanians
- Liberalism was a threat b/c it went with national aspirations and they had idea of national self-determination. therefore threatened to destroy austrian empire
What were motivations, methods, successes, and failures of Metternich and the conservatives?
- believed that the best state blended monarchy, bureaucracy, and aristocracy.
- hated liberalism since he believed it stirred up the middle class.
- motivation was his loyalty to his middle class
- succeeded in the fact that a multiethnic state was strong b/c of its large population and large territory
- failed at the fact that it was weak b/c it had many dissatisfied nationalities
Describe laissez-faire economic philosophy. why did laissez-faire liberals see mercantilism as undesirable?
- favored unrestricted private enterprise
- no government interference in economy
- mercantilism undesirable b/c it attempted to regulate trade and economic activity instead of free market
- free market would give all citizens fair and equal opportunity du to what they did best
How did socialism reflect the attitudes and aspirations of working people of the time?
- socialists believed gov't should organize economy rationally
- gov't shouldn't depend on destructive compensation for economy to be organized
- believed poor should be more nearly equal economically
- believed private property should be strictly regulated by govt or abolished and replaced by community ownership
- workers cherished memory of radical phase in French Revolution and opposed laissez-faire laws b/c it denied workers right to organize
- workers favored collective action and gov't invention in economic life since they developed a sense of class
What was Marx's view of history? What was the role of the proletariat?
- in his book Manifesto: "history of all previously existing society is the history of class struggles"
- believed proletariat would conquer bourgeoisie in a violent revolution
- they are to unite and win the world since they have nothing to loose but their chains
In what ways is romantic music a departure from the past? What was the purpose of romantic music?
- differed b/c Roantic composers used a wide range of forms to create a thousand musical landscapes and develop powerful emotions
- added wind instruments, percussion, more bass and sting instruments as opposed to small classical orchestra
- music no longer complemented a church service or helped a nobleman eat, but became yearning of the soul
What were the goals of the Anti-Corn law league?
- There goals were to repeal corn laws
- wanted to lower food prices
- wanted to keep jobs