TERMS CHAP 1-4

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sandovalfj
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196546
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TERMS CHAP 1-4
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2013-02-08 13:51:33
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TERMS 1-4
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  1. DEFINITIVE HOST
    WHERE ADULTHOOD AND MATING OCCUR
  2. DIMORPHIC
    MICROORGANISMS ABILITY TO EXIST IN TWO FORMS IE: CYST AND TROPHOZOITE
  3. DIOECIOUS
    SEPARATE SEXES IN SEPARATE BODIES IE: MALE AND FEMALE
  4. ENDOCYTOSIS
    PROCESS OF SOLID AND LIQUID MATERIALS TAKEN INTO THE CELL VIA THE CELL MEMBRANE
  5. ENDOSYMBIOSIS
    RELATIONSHIP WHERE A MICROORGANISM RESIDES IN A HOST CELL AND PROVIDES A BENEFIT TO THE HOST CELL
  6. EXOCYTOSIS
    THE PROCESS OF RELEASING SOLID MATERIAL FROM THE HOST CELL THROUGH THE MEMBRANE
  7. HETEROTROPHIC
    ORGANISM THAT RELIES ON ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FOR ITS CARBON AND ENERGY NEED    MEANS: HETERO- DIFFERENT  TROPH: FEEDER
  8. INTERMEDIATE HOST
    WHERE LARVA AND EGG DEVELOP
  9. MONOECIOUS
    BOTH SEXES IN SAME ENTITY IE: HERMAPHRODITE
  10. MYCELIUM
    THE FILAMENTOUS MASS THAT MAKES UP A MOLD. COMPOSED OF HYPHAE
  11. MYCOSIS
    ANY DISEASE CAUSED BY A FUNGUS
  12. NON-SEPTATE HYPHAE
    NOT SEGMENTED HYPHAE
  13. OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN
    PATHOGENS THAT CAN ONLY BE EFFECTIVE IF HOSTS IMMUNE SYSTEM IS ALREADY STRAINED OR LOWERED
  14. PARASITIC
    AN ORGANISM THAT LIVES ON OR IN A HOST WHERE IT FEEDS FROM AND IS PROTECTED BY WHICH IN TURN CAUSES HARM TO THE HOST
  15. PHAGOCYTOSIS
    THE ENGULFING OF LARGE PARTICLES BY A CELL IN ORDER TO ABSORB OR DESTROY THE PARTICLE  IE: WHITE BLOOD CELL
  16. PRIMARY PATHOGEN
    PATHOGEN THAT CAN ATTACK AND CAUSE HARM TO A HOST REGARDLESS OF THE STATUS OF THE HOSTS IMMUNE SYSTEM
  17. PSEUDOHYPHA
    A CHAIN OF EASILY SEPARATED YEAST CELLS PARTITIONED BY CONSTRICTIONS RATHER THAN BY SEPTA
  18. SAPROBIC
    ORGANISM THAT GETS ITS NUTRITION NEEDS FROM DEAD OR DECAYING MATTER
  19. SEPTATE HYPHAE
    HYPHAE SEPARATED BY WALLS CALLED SEPTA
  20. SPORES
    UNICELLELAR SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT ARE USED FOR REPODRUCTION, DISSEMIINATION, AND SURVIVAL DURING TIMES OF ADVERSE CONDITIONS CAN DEVELOP INTO GAMETES OR VEGETATIVE ORGAMISMS
  21. VACUOLE
    MEMBRANE-BOUNDED SACS CONTAINING FLUIDS OR PARTICLES TO BE DIGESTED, EXCRETED OR STORED
  22. AGAR
    A POLYSACCHARIDE USED IN PREPARING SOLID CULTURE MEDIA FOR MICROBES
  23. AMINO ACID
    BUILDING BLOCKS OF PROTEIN
  24. ANTIBODY
    • COMPLEX GLYCOPROTEINS WITH SPECIFIC ATTACHMENT REGIONS FOR
    • BACTERIA
    • VIRUSES
    • OTHER MICROORGANIMS
  25. BIOREMEDIATION
    DECOMPOSITION OF HARMFUL CHEMICALS BY MICROBES OR CONSORTIA OF MICROBES
  26. CELLULOSE
    FOUND IN PLANTS AND ALGAE ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SUBSTANCES ON EARTH
  27. DENATURE
    THE MOLECULAR BREAKDOWN OF NORMAL CHARACTERISTICS DUE TO THE ACTION OF HEAT OR CHEMICALS.  IE: DENATURED PROTEINS - EGG WHITES TURN WHITE WHEN COOKED
  28. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
     NEW IDENTIFIED DISEASES THAT ARE BECOMING MORE PROMINENT
  29. ENZYME
    A PROTEIN BIOCATALYST THAT FACILITATES METABOLIC REACTIONS
  30. EUKARYOTE
    • CELL WITH:
    • WELL DEFINED NUCLEUS
    • MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES
    • DIVIDES THROUGH MITOSIS
    • FOUND IN
    • ANIMALS
    • PLANTS
    • FUNGI
    • PROTOZOA
    • SOME ARE MICROSCOPIC MANY ARE MACROSCOPIC
    • 10 TIMES BIGGER THAN PROKARYOTES
  31. EVOLUTION
    THE ACCUMULATION OF CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN ORGANISMS AS THEY ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT
  32. GENETIC ENGINEERING
    DELIBERATE ALTERATION OF THE GENES OF MICROBES, PLANTS AND ANIMALS THROUGH TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs)
  33. GLYCOCALYX
    OUTER SURFACE OF MANY CELLS  FUNCTIONS IN ATTACHMENT OR AS A RECEPTOR THAT RECEIVES EXTERNAL STIMULI
  34. HYDROPHILIC
    THE PROPERTY OF ATTRACTING WATER
  35. HYDROPHOBIC
    THE PROPERTY OF REPELLING WATER
  36. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE
    COMPLEX OF LIPID AND POLYSACCHARIDE RESPONSIBLE FOR SYMPTOMS OF FEVER AND SHOCK
  37. MACROMOLECULE
    VERY LARGE MOLECULES
  38. MICROORGANISM
    A LIVING THING ORDINARILY TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN WITHOUT MAGNIFICATION, MICROSCOPIC SIZE
  39. MONOMER
    SUBUNITS OF MACROMOLECULES
  40. PATHOGEN
    AN AGENT THAT CAUSES DISEASE. USUALLY A VIRUS, BACTERIUM, FUNGUS, PROTOZOAN, OR HELMINTH
  41. PEPTIDE
    MOLECULE COMPOSED OF SHORT AMINO ACID CHAINS SUCH AS A DIPEPTIDE, TRIPEPTIDE, AND TETRAPEPTIDE.
  42. PEPTIDOGLYCAN
    • POLYSACCHARIDES LINKED TO PEPTIDE FRAGMENTS
    • FOUND IN BACTERIAL CELL WALLS
  43. POLYMER
    CHAINS OF VARIOUS LENGTHS MADE UP OF MONOMERS
  44. POLYPEPTIDE
    LARGE CHAIN OF AMINO ACIDS LINKED TOGETHER BY PEPTIDE BONDS
  45. PROKARYOTES
    • MICROORGANISMS LACKING SPECIAL STRUCTURES SUCH AS:
    • NUCLEUS
    • MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES
    • ONLY MICROSCOPIC
    • 10 TIMES SMALLER THAN EUKARYOTES
    • MAY CAN FUNCTION IN WAYS THAT EUKARYOTE CAN'T
  46. RECOMBINANT DNA
    THE TRANSFER OF GENETIC MATERIAL FROM ONE ORGANISM TO ANOTHER TO DELIBERATELY ALTER THE DNA AND PRODUCE A SPECIFIC PRODUCT
  47. TECHNOLOGY
    ENGINEERING, APPLIED SCIENCE, AND PURE SCIENCE CREATES TECHNICAL MEANS AND PROCEDURES BY WHICH WE INTERACT WITH LIFE, SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT
  48. STEROID
    LARGE GROUP OF FAT SOLUBLE ORGANIC COMPOUND
  49. UBIQUITOUS
    PRESENT EVERYWHERE AT THE SAME TIME
  50. COLONY
    A MACROSCOPIC CLUSTER OF CELLS APPEARING ON A SOLID MEDIUM, EACH ARISING FROM THE MULTIPLICATION OF A SINGLE CELL
  51. COUNTERSTAIN
    THE SECOND OF TWO STAINS USED IN THE DIFFERENTIAL STAINING PROCESS
  52. CULTURE
    THE PROPAGATION OF MICROORGANISMS WITH VARIOUS MEDIA
  53. INOCULATION
    THE IMPLANTATION OF MICROORGANISMS INTO OR UPON CULTURE MEDIA
  54. MAGNIFICATION
    THE ACT OF MAKING MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS VISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE
  55. MEDIA
    PLURAL FOR NUTRIENTS USED TO GROW MICROORGANISMS OUTSIDE OF THE NATURAL HABITAT
  56. MORDANT
    CHEMICAL THAT BINDS A DYE IN OR ON CELLS BY FORMING AN INSOLUBLE COMPOUND AND THEREBY PROMOTING RETENTION OF THE DYE IE: GRAMS IODINE IN THE GRAMS STAIN
  57. PRIMARY STAIN
    THE 1ST OF TWO STAINS USED IN THE DIFFERENTIAL STAINING PROCESS
  58. RESOLUTION
    THE ACCURATE DISTINCTION BETWEEN 2 SEPARATE ENTITIES THAT LIE CLOSE TO EACH OTHER IN THE FIELD OF VIEW
  59. REFRACTIVE INDEX
    HOW MANY DEGREES LIGHT BENDS AS IT PASSES FROM ONE MEDIUM TO ANOTHER
  60. AMPHITRICHOUS
    HAVING A SINGLE FLAGELLUM OR TUFT OF FLAGELLATION AT OPPOSITE POLES OF MICROBIAL CELL
  61. BIOFILM
    A COMPLEX ASSOCIATION THAT ARISES FROM A MIXTURE OF MICROORGANISMS GROWING TOGETHER ON THE SURFACE OF A HABITAT
  62. CHEMOTAXIS
    • THE TENDENCY OF ORGANISMS TO MOVE IN RESPONSE TO A CHEMICAL GRADIENT. TOWARD OR AWAY FORM STIMULI
    • RUNS- SMOOTH LINEAR MOVEMENT
    • TUMBLES-FLAGELLAR ROTATION REVERSES CAUSING CELL TO STOP AND CHANGE ITS COURSE
  63. ENDOTOXIN
    A BACTERIAL TOXIN THAT IS NOT CORDIALLY RELEASED.  COMPOSED OF PHOSPHOROUS-POLYSACCHARIDE COMPLEX INTEGRAL PART OF GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIAL WALLS.  CAUSES SEVERE SHOCK AND FEVER
  64. GRAM-NEGATIVE
    CATEGORY OF BACTERIAL CELLS THAT DESCRIBES BACTERIA WITH AN OUTER MEMBRANE, CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE AND A THIN CELL WALL APPEAR PINK AFTER STAINING
  65. GRAM-POSITIVE
    CATEGORY OF BACTERIAL CELLS THAT DESCRIBES BACTERIA WITH A THICK CELL WALL AND NO OUTER MEMBRANE  APPEAR PURPLE AFTER STAINING
  66. LOPHOTRICHOUS
    DESCRIBING BACTERIA HAVING  A TUFT OF FLAGELLA AT ONE OR BOTH POLES
  67. MONOTRICHOUS
    DESCRIBING A MICROORGANISM THAT BEARS A SINGLE FLAGELLUM
  68. MYCOLIC ACID
    LONG FATTY ACIDS FOUND IN THE CELL WALLS OF THE MYCOLATA TAXON, A GROUP OF BACTERIA THAT INCLUDES Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  69. PERITRICHOUS
    HAVING FLAGELLA DISTRIBUTED OVER THE ENTIRE CELL
  70. PLEOMORPHIC
    CELLS WITH THE ABILITY TO ALTER ITS SHAPE AND SIZE IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
  71. PROTOPLAST
    A BACTERIAL CELL WHOSE CELL WALL IS COMPLETELY LACKING AND THAT IS VULNERABLE TO OSMOTIC LYSIS
  72. SEROTYPE
    THE IMMUNOLOGIC TYPE BASED BASED ON ANTI-GENIC CHARACTERISTICS
  73. SPHEROPLAST
    GRAM-NEGATIVE CELL WHOSE PEPTIDOGLYCAN WHEN DIGESTED BY LYSOZYME, REMAINS INTACT BUT IS OSMOTICALLY VULNERABLE
  74. STRAIN
    SET IF DESCENDANTS CLONED FROM A COMMON ANCESTOR THAT RETAIN THE ORIGINAL CHARACTERISTICS FROM THE COMMON ANCESTOR. ANY DEVIATION FROM THE ORIGINAL IS A DIFFERENT STRAIN

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